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Paweł Jamróz, Paweł Ligęza and Katarzyna Socha

Abstract

The use of measurement apparatus under conditions which differ significantly from those under which the apparatus was adjusted carries the risk of altering the previously determined measurement characteristics. This is of special concern in the case of apparatus which is sensitive to external measurement conditions. Advanced measurement systems are equipped with algorithms which allow the negative effect of unstable environmental conditions on their static characteristics to be compensated for. Meanwhile, the problem of altered dynamic properties of such systems is often neglected. This paper presents a model study in which the effect of variable operational conditions on dynamic response of hot-wire anemometric measurement system in the case of simulated mine flows was investigated. A mathematical model of measurement system able to compensate the negative effect of changes in flow velocity and configuration of measurement apparatus itself on its dynamic properties was developed and investigated. Based on conducted experiments, we have developed an automatic regulation algorithm enabling the transmission band of measurement apparatus to be optimized for measurement conditions prevailing in mine environment.

Open access

Anna Rogóż, Zbigniew Sawłowicz, Paweł Socha and Krzysztof Stefaniak

Mineralization of teeth and bones of the cave bear (Ursus spelaeus) from the Biśnik Cave, Southern Poland

The studied bones and teeth of the cave bear (Ursus spelaeus) come from the Biśnik Cave, located in the Częstochowa Upland (Southern Poland). The specimens originate from different geological layers formed since the Odra Glaciation (250-270 thousand years BP). The fossilized bones and teeth were studied using optical microscopy, scanning electron microscopy, X-ray diffraction, FTIR spectroscopy, and INAA. They are built of recrystallized carbonate-rich apatite-(CaOH) and/or apatite-(CaOH). The teeth additionally contain some apatite-(CaF). The lack of collagen and minor REE contents suggest rapid burial and collagen decay in the early stage of diagenesis. The bones and teeth have only limited mineral infillings. In some teeth, Mn-Fe (hydroxy)oxides were found in the dentine canaliculi and in bones, some osteocyte lacunae contain Fe (hydroxy)oxides with admixture of Mn. In one bone specimen, calcite infillings are present in Haversian canals. The infillings formed during later stages of diagenesis and were succeeded by non-filled cracks.