Scots pine (Pinus sylvestris L.) is the most common species in Poland’s forest stands. The mode of pine stands renovation requires that silviculture practitioners have continuous access to seed banks. Orchard-grown seeds are predicted to constitute an increasingly larger part of the average demand for pine seeds in Poland. Seed orchards, due to a limited number of maternal trees as well as the irregularity of their blooming and pollination, enhance the risk of genetic diversity reduction in planted forest stands. This is of particular importance in the context of dynamic climate change. Markers based on microsatellite DNA fragments are effective tools for monitoring genetic variability. In the present study, three different microsatellite DNA fragments were used: SPAC 12.5, SPAG 7.14 and SPAC 11.4. The main objective of this research was to study genetic variability in one of the biggest seed orchards in Poland, located in the Forest District Susz. The obtained results indicated heterozygosity loss within the orchard, proving the existence of specimen selection effects on genetic variability. Hence, it seems quite important to take account of molecular genetic variability of maternal trees in future breeding strategies.
Forests in Kampinos National Park contain some of the most valuable tree populations in Poland. Particularly interesting are stands of Scots pine (Pinus sylvestris L.) that are more than 130-years-old. Periodic observations of the health of tree crowns in these stands facilitates a wide range of research investigations. This article evaluates statistical relationships between allometric features of trees and the occurrence and severity of crown defoliation.
Observations were made of 5 pine populations in 2017 and 2019, in which detailed data were collected for 250 trees. The percentage loss of the assimilation apparatus and level of stand damage were calculated.
The results revealed a significant increase in defoliation between 2017 and 2019. The deterioration of crown condition was particularly evident on the most fertile sites. The degree of crown damage was not correlated with tree height or diameter. The greatest increase in defoliation between 2017 and 2019 was observed for the most severely damaged trees growing on fertile sites.
This study contributes analyses aimed at correlating the allometric features of a stand with its health. Such information is valuable as it describes the status of the analysed stands, as well as providing information about how trees have responded to environmental conditions. In this study, crown defoliation coincided with a period of drought in Poland, which appears to have affected pine stands. For these reasons, the results are of both scientific and practical value.
The analysis of chosen selected Scots Pine (Pinus sylvestris L.), populations representing different seed regions: 107 (Międzyzdroje), 305 (Woziwoda), 206 (Strzałowo), 208 (Białowieża), 504 (Bolesławiec), 606 (Józefów) were performed using 10 isoensyme markers: Gdh (E.C.126.96.36.199), Sdh-A, Sdh-B (E.C.188.8.131.52), Pgd-B (E.C.184.108.40.206), Mdh-A, Mdh-C (E.C.220.127.116.11), Got-A, Got-B, Got-C (E.C.18.104.22.168), Dia-C (E.C.22.214.171.124). There were calculated following genetic parameters: allelic frequencies, observed and expected heterozygosities, and Wright’s fixation indexes. In populations, the results of analysis indicated presence of rare alleles. In all study populations, the average effective number of alleles per locus was 1.46 and was lower than expected number of alleles per locus of 1.93. The results for the effective number of alleles of the population per locus were as follows: Strzałowo and Białowieża 1.54, Bolesławiec 1.48, Jozefów 1.44, Świnoujście 1.42, Woziwoda 1.35. Average observed heterozygosity in the studied populations was calculated at the level of 0.26 and it was lower than the expected heterozygosity at 0.28. For populations, the level of heterozygosities were as follow: Strzałowo 0.35, Bolesławiec and Białowieża 0.25, Józefów 0.27, Świnoujście 0.23, Woziwoda 0.26. In particular loci level of heterozygosity was different, as the most heterozygous Mdh-C locus was estimated, while minimum Got-C.
Significant differences in allele frequency of Hardy-Weinberg deviation equilibrium were found in 10 cases: Strzałowo (Got-C), Bolesławiec (Got-B), Białowieża (Got-B, Gdh), Józefów (Mdh-C), Międzyzdroje (Got-B, Got-C, Mdh-C), Woziwoda (Got-C, Gdh). All studied populations had a lower effective number of alleles per locus (Ne) comparing to the observed number of alleles (Na). Wright’s fixation indices were negative for populations: Strzałowo (-0.09), Józefów (-0.03), Międzyzdroje (-0.01) and positive for: Białowieża (0.12), Woziwoda and Bolesławiec (0.07). The extremely high Wright’s fixation index (0.12) was observed for Białowieża population.
Evolutionary processes lead to the survival of individuals best adapted to local environment. This gives rise to allele polymorphism and genetic diversity of populations. Isoenzyme proteins, which are the product of gene expression, are an effective tool for tracking these changes. On the other hand, the reproductive potential of a given population can be assessed based on its ability to produce viable and efficiently germinating seeds. The present results combine molecular analyses of isoenzyme proteins with anatomical and morphological studies of Scots pine seeds (Pinus sylvestris L.). The study was conducted in 6 populations that are characteristic of this species occurrence range in the country. The results confirm the correlation between seed weight and embryo size. They also show a population from northeastern Poland had a higher effective number of alleles and seed with lower germinative energy and capacity. There was genetic homogeneity in all except for the population from Woziwoda, which was significantly different based on the Fst test. The genetic characteristics of Scots pine from Woziwoda may be associated with the lower levels of rainfall that occur there during the growing season. The results improve our knowledge of Scots pine variability and contribute to the discussion of the impact of local environment on genetic variability.
The Kampinos National Park (KNP), in terms of ecology, is an exceptionally valuable place in the Polish lowland region. Until the 20th century, as a result of limited human influence on the natural resources of the Kampinos Forest, it can be presumed that the 100-year-old tree stands were shaped by natural ecological processes. This study contains a detailed assessment of crown conditions, dendrometric measurements and visible disease symptoms in the oldest fragments of the KNP, as well as statistical evaluation of the relationships between these factors. Results were correlated with ecological factors such as precipitation and temperature. For the purpose of the study, five tree stands, each over 130 years old, were selected. In each stand, the level of defoliation was assessed, based on the forest monitoring methodology performed in Poland for the State Environmental Monitoring. Tree height, circumference, and diameter at breast height measurements were performed for all the trees, and any visible disease symptoms were described. Defoliation data were used to classify 93.6% of the trees as the second level of stand damage (the so-called ‘warning’ level) according to the monitoring methodology. Observed disease factors confirm the physiological weakening of the trees. The populations studied exhibited a range of mean height and stem volume, and these were not significantly related to the level of defoliation or visible disease symptoms. Ecological factors, especially the drought in 2015, probably did not have a negative impact on the examined stands. The analysed pine populations demonstrate physiological weakness, but this appears to be related to their age and natural ecological processes.
In 2015 in Kampinos National Park (KNP), monitoring of tree crown condition was conducted in specimens of the Scots pine, which is the dominant tree species in the park (73.3%). The monitoring was aimed at providing information about the health of pine trees in the national park area. The monitoring was conducted on 26 plots throughout the park. The stands where the pine is not a dominant species were omitted. On each plot, 20 trees were subjected to assessment. In total, 520 pine trees were examined. The monitoring was conducted by the assessment of tree crowns based on the adapted forest monitoring methodology conducted as part of National Environmental Monitoring. On the basis of the monitoring, it was found that 75.4% of the trees are characterised by slight defoliation and 94.4% of the specimens were not found to have discoloration of the assimilation apparatus. No differences were found between areas situated closer and further from the administrative borders of Warsaw. On the basis of the monitoring, it was found that the pine trees in KNP are in a good health condition. Dendrometric measurements show that the average diameter at breast height (DBH) of the analysed trees is 26.6 cm. The average height of the trees is 20.4 m. The average age of the examined tree stands is 84. The monitoring will be continued in subsequent years in order to record the changes taking place in tree crowns.
During 2015 and 2016, in the Kampinos National Park (KNP), monitoring was conducted for the population of black alder (Alnus glutinosa (L.) Gaertn.), which occupies 12.5% of the tree stands in the park and, after the Scots pine (Pinus sylvestris L.), is the second most important species there. The aim of the observation was to obtain data about the current condition of alder in the National Park. Monitoring was carried out on eight plots designated throughout the park. Stands where alder was not the dominant species were omitted. On each plot, 20 trees were evaluated with a total of 160 plants assessed. The age of the tree stands analysed was 55–120 years. Monitoring was conducted by assessing the tree’s crowns, based on the methodology of forest monitoring implemented by the National Environmental Monitoring. Based on the analyses, it was found that the average defoliation of alder in 2015 reached 28.1%, and 34.4% in 2016, with the differences being statistically significant. Among 70% of the specimens, there was no discoloration of the assimilation apparatus. There were significant differences in defoliation between research plots located inside the park and near its borders, which can be associated with the influence of anthropogenic factors. Based on the monitoring, it was found that the state of alder crowns in KNP is a warning or average, depending on the year of observation. Therefore, it is necessary to continue monitoring the state of alder crowns in KNP. On the basis of the study results, it was also found that the biosocial structure of the researched tree stands is formed correctly. The dendrometric measurements conducted show that the average diameter of the trees analysed, at breast height was 30.5 cm with an average height of 25.5 m. To analyse the changes in height and breast height, dendrometric measurements must be repeated in 2020. Monitoring will be continued in the following years to observe the changes.
The aim of the study was to determine the vulnerability of selected silver fir populations to damage from late frost in the climatic conditions of south-eastern Poland. To determine the vulnerability of apical and lateral shoots to damage caused by late frosts, we observed four test plots in 2009 and 2014, each containing progenies of selected seed stands. Our statistical analyses were based on a model incorporating the following variables: site, year, type of frost damage, population as well as the possible interaction between these variables. Significant differences between the populations were found in terms of their sensitivity to damage from low temperature occurring during the growth period. Furthermore, we indirectly demonstrated differences in the severity of late frost on the experimental plots, as well as the intensity and variability of late frost shoot damage. Based on these results, we divided the studied populations into two groups of low (EF, KRA1 and NAR) and high (LES2 and BAL2) sensitivity to late frost damage.