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Open access

Piotr Król, Paweł Chmielarz, Bożena Król and Kinga Pielichowska

Abstract

PU elastomers were synthesized using MDI, PTMO, butane-1,4-diol or 2,2,3,3-tetrafiuorobutane-1,4-diol. Using the same diisocyanate and polyether reagents urethane segments were prepared, to be inserted in the poly(urethane-methacrylate) copolymers. Bromourethane or tetraphenylethane-urethane macroinitiators were used as transitional products reacting with MMA according to the ARGET ATRP. 1H and 13C NMR spectral methods, as well as DSC and TGA thermal methods, were employed to confirm chemical structures of synthesised elastomers and copolymers. To investigate the possibility of using synthesized polymers as biomaterials a research on keeping them in physiological liquid at 37°C was performed. A loss in weight and ability to sorption of water was determined and by using GPC the molecular weight changes were compared. Additionally, changes in the thermal properties of the samples after exposure in physiological liquid were documented using both the TGA and DSC methods. The studies of surface properties (confocal microscopy and SFE) of the obtained polymers were performed. The structure of the polymer chains was defined by NMR. Possible reasons of hydrolysis were discussed, stating that new copolymers are more resistant and polar biomaterials can be less interesting than elastomers.

Open access

Piotr Kleczkowski, Aleksandra Król and Paweł Małecki

Abstract

In virtual acoustics or artificial reverberation, impulse responses can be split so that direct and reflected components of the sound field are reproduced via separate loudspeakers. The authors had investigated the perceptual effect of angular separation of those components in commonly used 5.0 and 7.0 multichannel systems, with one and three sound sources respectively (Kleczkowski et al., 2015, J. Audio Eng. Soc. 63, 428-443). In that work, each of the front channels of the 7.0 system was fed with only one sound source. In this work a similar experiment is reported, but with phantom sound sources between the front loud- speakers. The perceptual advantage of separation was found to be more consistent than in the condition of discrete sound sources. The results were analysed both for pooled listeners and in three groups, according to experience. The advantage of separation was the highest in the group of experienced listeners.

Open access

Agata Grenda, Agata Leońska-Duniec, Mariusz Kaczmarczyk, Krzysztof Ficek, Paweł Król, Paweł Cięszczyk and Piotr Żmijewski

Abstract

We hypothesized that the ACE ID / ACTN3 R577X genotype combination was associated with sprint and endurance performance. Therefore, the purpose of the present study was to determine the interaction between both ACE ID and ACTN3 R577X polymorphisms and sprint and endurance performance in swimmers. Genomic DNA was extracted from oral epithelial cells using GenElute Mammalian Genomic DNA Miniprep Kit (Sigma, Germany). All samples were genotyped using a real-time poly- merase chain reaction. The ACE I/D and the ACTN3 R577X genotype frequencies met Hardy-Weinberg expectations in both swimmers and controls. When the two swimmer groups, long distance swimmers (LDS) and short distance swimmers (SDS), were compared with control subjects in a single test, a significant association was found only for the ACE polymorphism, but not for ACTN3. Additionally, four ACE/ACTN3 combined genotypes (ID/RX, ID/XX, II/RX and II/XX) were statistically significant for the LDS versus Control comparison, but none for the SDS versus Control comparison. The ACE I/D and the ACTN3 R577X polymorphisms did not show any association with sprint swimming, taken individually or in combination. In spite of numerous previous reports of associations with athletic status or sprint performance in other sports, the ACTN3 R577X polymorphism, in contrast to ACE I/D, was not significantly associated with elite swimming status when considered individually. However, the combined analysis of the two loci suggests that the co-occurrence of the ACE I and ACTN3 X alleles may be beneficial to swimmers who compete in long distance races

Open access

Wojciech Cynarski, Lothar Sieber, Kazimierz Obodyński, Milan Ďuriček, Paweł Król and Marian Rzepko

Factors of Development of Far Eastern Martial Arts in Central Europe

The aim of the research was to indicate the main factors of development declared by the practitioners of the different disciplines of martial arts and combat sports in selected countries of Central Europe. In particular, such variables as training location and type of martial arts/combat sports have been taken into consideration. Five research questions have been established which should be answered in order to find the solution to the posed problem.

The theoretical perspective for analyses presented here consists of sociology of sport and humanist theory of martial arts. This approach results in the need for quantitative and qualitative analysis of the answers to questions about the barriers of development according to the variables of the practiced variety (a martial art, a combat sport) and the place of training.

The method of diagnostic survey has been used. The research was conducted on a group of 500 subjects from south-eastern Poland, Slovakia, Germany and additionally (for comparison) from England, of which 489 were accepted for the study. This number includes 137 representatives of kyokushin karate from Poland, 143 Polish karatekas of non-contact varieties, 18 representatives of jujitsu and karate from Germany, 37 aikidokas from Poland (a martial art without sportive rivalry), 107 judokas from Poland and 24 judokas from Slovakia, with an additional 23 British rugby players. The selection of the group was deliberate and complete, taking into account the representatives of various martial arts and combat sports, with rugby used for comparative purposes.

Practicing martial arts oriented to self-realization, determines the motivation for their practice, which differs from the motivation in sport (combat sports). It influences the dominating choices of values-goals and popularity, thus the development of given varieties. Both martial arts and combat sports of Asian origin (aikido, judo, jujitsu, karate) attract practitioners, mainly due to their usefulness in self-defense. The values connected with training and sportive rivalry (combat sports, rugby) are also noticed. The variable of place (country) is connected with the dominating forms in promoting a given martial art or combat sport.

Open access

Paweł Drygaś and Anna Król

Abstract

This paper deals with ordinal sums of fuzzy implications. Some of the known constructions are recalled and new ways of generating fuzzy implications from given ones are proposed. Sufficient properties of fuzzy implications as summands for obtaining a fuzzy implication as a result are presented.

Open access

Adam Kantanista, Magdalena Król-Zielińska, Joanna Borowiec, Agata Glapa, Paweł Lisowski and Michał Bronikowski

Summary

Study aim: the aim of this study was to assess the step counts of children and adolescents with different BMIs and to present the results in relation to the step count recommendation.

Material and methods: the study included data from 175 girls, aged 12–18 (45 participants from primary school, 69 participants from junior high school and 61 participants from high school). Voluntary participants were recruited from public schools in Poland. Step counts were measured using pedometers (Yamax Digi-Walker SW 701) over seven consecutive days.

Results: the recommended level of 12000 steps per day was achieved by only 14.9% of participants. The step counts performed by girls, especially at the primary school age, are currently insufficient. Participants’ achievement of the recommended step count level correlated with a lower BMI.

Conclusions: few female children and adolescents are meeting daily step recommendations, which highlights the importance of school and community-based programmes designed to increase daily activity patterns.

Open access

Michał Król, Marek Konefał, Paweł Chmura, Marcin Andrzejewski, Tomasz Zając and Jan Chmura

Abstract

Introduction. Having possession of the ball makes it possible for the players of a team to undertake a greater number of actions that can help the team win the match. The aim of the current study was to determine the number and completion rate of passes made from different distances in relation to percentage ball possession and the outcome of the match in the group stage of the FIFA World Cup held in Brazil in 2014. Material and methods. The study included 32 teams who participated in the final tournament. The performance of 266 players (682 observations) who played 48 matches in the group stage was examined. Only players who took part in the entire match were included in the research, and goal-keepers were excluded. The data used in the study, which had been recorded by means of the Castrol Performance Index system, were obtained from the FIFA official website. The total number of passes and the percentage of completed passes were analysed, which were classified as short, medium, and long, in relation to the team’s percentage possession of the ball (over and below 50%) and the outcome of the match (win, loss, or draw). Results. Out of the three types of passes which were examined in the study, teams playing in the World Cup in Brazil most often made medium passes. The number of these passes was the highest in matches won. These matches were also characterised by a significantly higher percentage of completed long passes. Conclusions. Players from teams who were in possession of the ball more than 50% of the time performed a higher number of all types of passes, regardless of the outcome of the match. The completion rate for these players was significantly higher only for short and medium passes.

Open access

Marta Stępień-Słodkowska, Krzysztof Ficek, Mariusz Kaczmarczyk, Agnieszka Maciejewska-Karłowska, Marek Sawczuk, Agata Leońska-Duniec, Miłosz Stępiński, Paweł Ziętek, Paweł Król, Monika Chudecka and Paweł Cięszczyk

Abstract

The purpose of this study was to examine the association of the BstUI RFLP C/T (rs 12722) and DpnII RFLP C/T (rs 13946) COL5A1 polymorphisms, individually and as haplotypes, with anterior cruciate ligament ruptures in recreational skiers. Subjects were 138 male recreational skiers with surgically diagnosed primary anterior cruciate ligament ruptures. The control group consisted of 183 apparently healthy male recreational skiers, who were without any self-reported history of ligament or tendon injury. DNA was extracted from buccal cells donated by the subjects and genotyping was carried out using real-time PCR. The genotype distributions for both polymorphisms met Hardy- Weinberg expectations in both groups. There were no significant differences in genotype distribution of allele frequencies of COL5A1 BstUI RFLP C/T and COL5A1 DpnII RFLP C/T polymorphisms between the ACL rupture and control groups. The T-T (BstUI RFLP T, DpnII RFLP T) haplotype was the most common (55.6%). The haplotype T-C was not present in any of the subjects. There was an underrepresentation tendency of the C-T haplotype in the study group compared to controls under recessive mode of inheritance. Higher frequency of the COL5A1 BstUI RFLP C/T and COL5A1DpnII RFLP C/T polymorphisms haplotype is associated with reduced risk of anterior cruciate ligament injury in a group of apparently healthy male recreational skiers.

Open access

Maria Jastrzębska, Mariusz Kaczmarczyk, Małgorzata Michalczyk, Łukasz Radzimiński, Piotr Stępień, Joanna Jastrzębska, Dorota Wakuluk, Arturo Díaz Suárez, Guillermo Felipe López Sánchez, Paweł Cięszczyk, Piotr Godlewski, Paweł Król and Zbigniew Jastrzębski

Abstract

There is no clear evidence that vitamin D effectively improves physical capacity in high-level athletes. The aim of this study was to confirm that vitamin D supplementation of soccer players during eight-week high-intensity training would have a significant effect on their aerobic capacity. The subjects were divided into two groups: the experimental one that was supplemented with vitamin D (SG, n = 20), and the placebo group (PG, n = 16), not supplemented with vitamin D. All the players were subjected to the same soccer training described as High-Intensity Interval Training (HIIT). The data of the vitamin D level, PWC170, lactate threshold (LT) were collected just before and after the intervention. A significant increase in vitamin D concentration (119%) was observed in the supplemented group, while the non-supplemented group showed a decrease of 8.4%. The studied subjects improved VO2max results by 20% in the SG, and by 13% in the PG. The improvement in velocity at the LT was similar in both groups. Results of this study show that vitamin D can have a positive, though moderate, effect on aerobic performance in players subjected to high-intensity training in the form of small-sided games for 8 weeks.