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Teresa Chirkowska-Smolak and Pawel Kleka

The Maslach Burnout Inventory-General Survey: validation across different occupational groups in Poland

This paper concerns the psychometric evaluation of the Polish version of a self-report questionnaire to measure burnout. Although the Maslach Burnout Inventory (MBI) is the most commonly employed measure of burnout, researchers have been troubled by some of its psychometric limitations. The aim of this study is to examine the MBI-GS factor structure in three occupational groups (both within the human services sector and elsewhere), and to evaluate its reliability (internal consistency). In evaluating factorial validity, we carried out an explanatory analysis and a number of confirmatory analyses (using the total database and the three occupational groups). An additional aim was to explore the relationships between biographic characteristics (gender, age, work experience, employment level, and occupation) and burnout. The results of the confirmatory analyses show us that all three models fit the data almost acceptably, both in the total sample (N=998) and in the separate occupational groups, and that the fit of the three-factor solution appears to be somewhat better than that of the one- and two-factor solutions. When the initial model failed to fit the data well, we had to eliminate two items with weak reliability. The results then confirmed the factorial validity of the MBI-GS—as expected, the MBI-GS consists of three scales that are moderately correlate.

Open access

Paweł Kleka and Władysław Jacek Paluchowski

Abstract

In this article, on the basis of questionnaire data collected for other purposes, the Authors want to show the consequences of various methods of shortening of tests and what may result from such an action for diagnosticians, researchers and examined individuals. The research aim of the work is to show the best method of shortening of the scale of questionnaires. Will shortening of a questionnaire according to different statistical techniques bring the same results? Will the quality of shortened scales be comparable? Is any of statistical techniques better for shortening of the scale of a questionnaire? The obtained results suggest a poorly controlable effect of the methods of questionnaire shortening. Moreover creating a short version on the basis of the results collected with the use of the full version leads to obtaining a tool with unknown diagnostic and psychometric properties.

Open access

Izabela Kaczmarek, Sławomir Jabłoński, Paweł Kleka and Barbara Steinborn

Abstract

Recently, extensive studies investigating executive functions in children with specific language impairment (SLI) have been performed. In the present study, we compared the level of executive functions (i.e., inhibitory control and cognitive flexibility) and literacy skills between 53 healthy children and 53 children with SLIs between the ages of 3 and 11 years. The groups were matched by age, gender and parental education level. Executive functions were assessed using the Children Card Sort, and the Literacy Assessment Battery was applied to measure literacy skills. The patients with SLI displayed a significantly lower level of cognitive flexibility than that of the healthy children. No significant differences were observed between the groups in inhibitory control and the majority of literacy skills. The results confirm the hypothesis that patients with SLI experience difficulties in cognitive flexibility.

Open access

Honorata Hafke-Dys, Anna Preis, Tomasz Kaczmarek, Adam Biniakowski and Paweł Kleka

Abstract

Annoyance ratings for artificially created noises, resembling the main characteristics of temporal wind turbine noise, were studied by means of a listening experiment involving 21 participants with normal hearing. Three types of stimuli were examined: broadband noise (−4 dB/octave), noise generated by moving cars, and narrowband noise. All stimuli had the sound level fluctuations typical for wind turbine noise. The magnitude of the sound level fluctuations was measured in a quantitative way, by using the characteristics of amplitude modulated sound: modulation rate and modulation depth. Our aim was to examine how the modulation rate and the modulation depth influence the noise annoyance assessment of broadband and narrowband amplitude modulated noises. Three different modulation rates, 1, 2 and 4 Hz, and sound level fluctuations (a measure of the modulation depth), 3, 6, 9 dB, were applied to each type of stimuli (with exception of noise generated by the moving cars) and investigated. The participants in the listening experiment were presented with sound stimuli in laboratory conditions and asked to rate their annoyance on a numerical scale. The results have shown a significant difference between the investigated conditions. The effect was particularly strong between the annoyance judgments of different types of noise (narrow and broadband), and modulated versus unmodulated noises. Temporal fluctuations occurring in wind turbine noise are very pertinent to the perception of annoyance and could be responsible for its being a relatively annoying noise source. The obtained results were discussed and compared to the typical modulation rates and level changes that occur in recordings of real wind turbine noise.