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Maciej Składanowski, Paweł Jarosz and Barbara Mackiewicz


Introduction. Peak Expiratory Flow Rate (PEFR) was first described by Hadorn as a measure of the lung function. The definition of PEFR established by the European Respiratory Society defines it as the maximal flow achieved during the phase of expiration, delivered with maximal force and starting from the maximal lung inflation level.

Aim. The authors of this study attempted at evaluating the variations of PEFR, taking into consideration the effects of one’s age, height Body Mass Index (BMI), Body Surface Area (BSA), seasons of the year and air pollution. Healthy adults living in urban areas were subjects of the study.

Material and methods. The study group consisted of some 179 healthy subjects, 102 women and 77 men, aged 18 to 66. Every patient’s medical history, including epidemiological, demographic data, as well as the information about the occurrence and symptoms of lung diseases, was taken from every patient. Only healthy subjects were selected for further analysis. Participants performed spirometry testing. Physical parameters were measured. Appropriate pollution data was obtained.

Results. The study group consisted of 179 patients (102 women and 77 men). There is a negative correlation between PEFR and age and a positive one between PEFR and height, as well as Body Surface Area and BMI (regarded as a quantitative, but not as a qualitative trait). There is a significant correlation between PEFR and PEFR adjusted by age, height and weight with seasons of the year. There is a statistically significant negative impact of NO2, SO2 and O3 24 h mean and hourly NO2 concentration on PEFR.

Conclusions. Peak Expiratory Flow Rate changes are also present in a healthy adult population. Prevalence of obesity is an important factor of the examined population.

Open access

Krzysztof Szostek, Beata Stepańczak, Anita Szczepanek, Małgorzata Kępa, Henryk Głąb, Paweł Jarosz, Piotr Włodarczak, Krzysztof Tunia, Jacek Pawlyta, Czesława Paluszkiewicz and Grzegorz Tylko

Diagenetic signals from ancient human remains - bioarchaeological applications

This preliminary study examines the potential effects of diagenetic processes on the oxygen-isotope ratios of bone and tooth phosphate (δ18O) from skeletal material of individuals representing the Corded Ware Culture (2500-2400 BC) discovered in Malżyce (Southern Poland). Intra-individual variability of Ca/P, CI, C/P, collagen content (%) and oxygen isotopes was observed through analysis of enamel, dentin and postcranial bones. Using a variety of analytical techniques, it was found that, despite the lack of differences in soil acidity, not all the parts of a skeleton on a given site had been equally exposed to diagenetic post mortem changes. In a few cases, qualitative changes in the FTIR spectrum of analysed bones were observed. The data suggest that apart from quantitative analyses, i.e., the calculation of Ca/P, CI, C/P and collagen content, qualitative analyses such as examination of the absorbance line are recommended. The degree to which a sample is, contaminated on the basis of any additional, non-biogenic peaks, deemed to be contaminated should also be specified.