Introduction. Peak Expiratory Flow Rate (PEFR) was first described by Hadorn as a measure of the lung function. The definition of PEFR established by the European Respiratory Society defines it as the maximal flow achieved during the phase of expiration, delivered with maximal force and starting from the maximal lung inflation level.
Aim. The authors of this study attempted at evaluating the variations of PEFR, taking into consideration the effects of one’s age, height Body Mass Index (BMI), Body Surface Area (BSA), seasons of the year and air pollution. Healthy adults living in urban areas were subjects of the study.
Material and methods. The study group consisted of some 179 healthy subjects, 102 women and 77 men, aged 18 to 66. Every patient’s medical history, including epidemiological, demographic data, as well as the information about the occurrence and symptoms of lung diseases, was taken from every patient. Only healthy subjects were selected for further analysis. Participants performed spirometry testing. Physical parameters were measured. Appropriate pollution data was obtained.
Results. The study group consisted of 179 patients (102 women and 77 men). There is a negative correlation between PEFR and age and a positive one between PEFR and height, as well as Body Surface Area and BMI (regarded as a quantitative, but not as a qualitative trait). There is a significant correlation between PEFR and PEFR adjusted by age, height and weight with seasons of the year. There is a statistically significant negative impact of NO2, SO2 and O3 24 h mean and hourly NO2 concentration on PEFR.
Conclusions. Peak Expiratory Flow Rate changes are also present in a healthy adult population. Prevalence of obesity is an important factor of the examined population.
The presented study was based on isotopic analysis of δ13C and δ15N in human bone collagen samples from graves of the Corded Ware culture in Święte, south-east Poland. Isotopic values demonstrate a relatively narrow variation, ranging from -20.4‰ to -19.8‰ and 10.6‰ to 12.0‰ for δ13C and δ15N values, respectively. The diet was likely C3 plant-based with a substantial animal protein component, including predominantly terrestrial and possibly riverine resources.
Strontium isotope ratios (87Sr/86Sr) were applied to investigate provenance amongst the Final Eneolithic population at Święte (sites 11, 15 and 20) in the Subcarpathian region, south-eastern Poland. The study used 11 human enamel samples collected from the niche graves of the Corded Ware culture. To obtain base-line information on the local Sr isotope composition seven animal enamel samples were also examined. They were found in the adjacent archaeological sites of the Mierzanowice culture at Mirocin and Dobkowice, which have the same environmental and geological background as the sites at Święte. The investigated individuals from Święte display a wide spectrum of Sr isotope signatures, from 0.7094 to 0.7109. Because a comparison of human 87Sr/86Sr values from Święte with Sr animal signatures from Early Bronze Age sites in the area is not unambiguous the local range of 87Sr/86Sr values were based on published data for the Subcarpathian population of the Corded Ware culture. Strontium isotope ratios indicate that only three males with the most radiogenic 87Sr/86Sr values exhibit local signatures. Values below 0.7103 document individuals born outside of the Subcarpathian region. Among these are all women and children, two males and one individual with undetermined sex. The probable homeland of the non-local individuals were areas along the northern and eastern margins of the Carpathian Foredeep in Poland and Ukraine.
Diagenetic signals from ancient human remains - bioarchaeological applications
This preliminary study examines the potential effects of diagenetic processes on the oxygen-isotope ratios of bone and tooth phosphate (δ18O) from skeletal material of individuals representing the Corded Ware Culture (2500-2400 BC) discovered in Malżyce (Southern Poland). Intra-individual variability of Ca/P, CI, C/P, collagen content (%) and oxygen isotopes was observed through analysis of enamel, dentin and postcranial bones. Using a variety of analytical techniques, it was found that, despite the lack of differences in soil acidity, not all the parts of a skeleton on a given site had been equally exposed to diagenetic post mortem changes. In a few cases, qualitative changes in the FTIR spectrum of analysed bones were observed. The data suggest that apart from quantitative analyses, i.e., the calculation of Ca/P, CI, C/P and collagen content, qualitative analyses such as examination of the absorbance line are recommended. The degree to which a sample is, contaminated on the basis of any additional, non-biogenic peaks, deemed to be contaminated should also be specified.