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Paweł Banyś, Thoralf Noack and Stefan Gewies

Abstract

Since its introduction the Automatic Identification System (AIS) has played an important part in improving safety at sea, making bridge watchkeeping duties more comfortable and enhancing vessel traffic management ashore. However the analysis of a AIS data set describing the vessel traffic of the Baltic Sea came to conclusion, that specific parameters with relevance to navigation seemed to be defective or implausible. Essentially, it concerned the true heading (THDG) and the rate of turn (ROT) parameters. With the paper we are trying to clarify, which parameters of the AIS position report and to what extent, are affected. The detailed data analysis gives answers on how reliable the AIS data in different traffic areas is.

Open access

Paweł Banyś, Frank Heymann, Evelin Engler and Thoralf Noack

Abstract

Since its deployment in 2004, the Automatic Identification System (AIS) has been considered a significant improvement of watchkeeping duties at sea. According to current regulations, AIS has not been recognised as an approved anticollision instrument yet. However, it would be difficult to rule out a possibility that AIS, being an essential part of the onboard SOLAS — compliant configuration, is unaidedly used for collision avoidance tasks. Recent research activities of DLR's Department of Nautical Systems have shown that AIS transmissions may contain a lot of incomplete data and the system does not have any dependable information on its data integrity. For that reason, the computation of the closest point of approach (CPA) and the time to the CPA (TCPA) are analysed based on AIS data involving multiple vessels, in order to compare the predictions with factual approaches between vessels and to evaluate the usability of AIS data, in its present form, for the appraisal of the traffic situation around each vessel.

Open access

Jadwiga Piskorska-Pliszczyńska, Paweł Struciński, Szczepan Mikołajczyk, Sebastian Maszewski, Jarosław Rachubik and Małgorzata Warenik-Bany

Abstract

The paper presents the results of testing eggs for the content of dioxins and polychlorinated biphenyls (PCBs), determination of the sources that caused the presence of high concentrations of these compounds which exceeded the acceptable contamination levels, and assessment of consumer health risk caused by the consumption of eggs with excessive contents of investigated compounds. In about 9% of free range eggs and 17% of organic eggs, the content of PCDD/Fs was two- or threefold higher than the acceptable limits, and in some samples the concentration of investigated compounds exceeded the maximum concentration levels. Based on the profile of the compounds, it was confirmed in several cases that their main source was the soil or unsecured refuse. The consumers of eggs and meat produced under these conditions constitute the risk groups, and their dioxin and PCB intake may exceed toxicological reference values.