This paper shows that tree-ring trends might be used for the assessment of the intensity of trampling along touristic tracks in the forests. The study aims at determining the effects of trampling, on the dynamics of annual increments in trees subject to pressure from hiking tourism. The studies were conducted at a spruce stand in the Tatra Mts., on sections of different trails. Within each trail, four transects were determined. Transects include the zones with damage from trampling and the un-affected areas, treated as a reference zones. Selected trees growing in both zones were sampled by coring and the core samples were used to develop sequences of annual increment widths. Next, the dynamics of increments in trees growing in the tourist zone and the reference zone were compared. The decrease in the annual increments was significantly more rapid in trees growing directly along the trail that those in trees deep in the forest stand in one locality. This finding may testify the adverse effects of hiking along tourist routes on the radial increments in trees in the neighbourhood of the trails. The results of the study indicate that the impact of trampling in the form of soil compaction and mechanical damage to root systems of trees may, to some extent, be compensated by better light access and lessened competition experienced by trees growing along the edges of hiking trails. Tree-ring analyses might be an efficient alternative for assessment of tourism intensity conducted by the other methods.
The research was carried out in three steppe nature reserves in the Nida Basin (southern Poland) aiming at determine an impact of geomorphological conditions and spatial arrangement on selected parameters of life history of Adonis vernalis in the year 2007-2008. In each reserve 10 1-m2 permanent plots, using stratified-random sampling method, were established and frequency of particular developmental phases were noted in April and May. In 2007 and 2008 total 1145 and 1132 ramets were counted respectively. We observed negative relationships between density of clumps per 1 m2 and number of specific developmental phases and height of clumps. Phenology of Adonis vernalis shows distinct year-to-year changes what is probably connected with sensitivity of plants to weather fluctuations. Our study revealed that relations between ramets and density of clumps are similar independently on local biotopic conditions, relief structure, differences in abundance of population, and type of vegetation in neighbourhood.
Since the last decades, natural disturbances in forests including protected areas have intensified. They have the potential to impact visual quality and safety of visitors as well as spread beyond protected area boundaries. While economic and ecological impacts are well studied, there is still a lack of work focused on human dimensions and social aspects. This study examines visitor perceptions towards bark beetle infestation in Tatra National Park, Poland. The findings, based on visitor surveys collected during the summer of 2014, indicate the significance of different factors influencing visitor attitudes towards the bark beetle. Age of visitors and importance of the bark beetle issue for them (based on subjective ratings of importance of bark beetle issue for respondents) are the most prominent variables. Also place of origin and environmental worldview were recognized as significantly important variables in accordance with similar studies. Results suggest management implications for park authorities including public relations and environmental education in order to increase knowledge and support for natural disturbance and ecological integrity policies in the national park.
Challenges for the European SPA Management. Results of the ILIS Project
Introduction. The spa industry has been rapidly growing throughout Europe in recent years, which has led to an associated increase in educational demand in spa management. The aim of the study was to identify the most important needs for training and the most significant skills among the spa managers and their personnel throughout Europe. Moreover, it was to research the background of spas were the study had taken place. Material and methods. 30 managers took part in semi structured interviews that used a pre-prepared questionnaire. The answers were analysed with Wilcoxon signed rank test and also the mean values were compared. Results. The needs for training and importance of skills vary from country to country but common areas of interest are: sales, marketing, quality and innovation management, legal regulations, operational and social skills. The complex character of answers to questionnaire was a result of different spa business models and differing domestic spa markets as well as variety of legal environments. Conclusions. Spa tourism creates a significant income among the other tourism disciplines since that further research is needed. Demands for the spa education differed accordingly to a stage of each country spa business development. Spa managers tend to express higher training needs for their employees than for themselves.