In the year 2016, passive biomonitoring studies were conducted in the forest areas of southern and north-eastern Poland: the Karkonosze Mountains (Kark), the Beskidy Mountains (Beskid), Borecka Forest (P. Bor), Knyszynska Forest (P. Kny), and Białowieza Forest (P. Bia). This study used bark from the tree, Betula pendula Roth. Samples were collected in spring (Sp), summer (Su), and autumn (Au). Concentrations of Mn, Fe, Ni, Cu, Zn, Cd, and Pb were determined for the samples using the atomic absorption spectrometry method with flame excitation (F-AAS). Based on the obtained results, the studied areas were ranked according to level of heavy-metal deposition: forests of southern Poland > forests of north-eastern Poland. Some seasonal changes in the concentrations of metals accumulated in bark were also indicated, which is directly related to their changing concentrations in the air during the calendar year, for instance, the winter heating season produces higher concentrations of heavy metals in the bark samples taken in spring. When deciding to do biomonitoring studies using bark, but also other biological materials, it is necessary to take into account the period in which the conducted research is done and the time when the samples are taken for analysis, because this will have a significant impact on the obtained results.
The aim of the carried out research was to assess atmospheric aerosol pollution levels in the area of three apiaries located in the Opole Province and to analyse heavy metals pollution in bee honey and western honey bees. Pleurozium schreberi moss was used in analysing atmospheric aerosol pollution with the active biomonitoring method, whereas heavy metals levels were determined with flame atomic absorption spectrometry method (F-AAS). Relative Accumulation Factors (RAF) were used in determining increases of analytes concentrations in the moss samples. As a result of the carried out study, the following conclusions have been reached: mosses are good bioindicators of environment pollution thanks to their sorption qualities, similarly to honey bees, which are a bioindicator of environment pollution. According to the Commission Regulation of European Union of 2015 regarding the maximum levels of lead in certain foods (honey), it should not exceed 0.1 mg/kg. On the basis of the carried out study it can be stated that the concentration of this analyte in the analysed honey was below the limit of quantification of the applied analytical method.
The aim of the research was to assess the level of contamination with heavy metals (manganese, iron, nickel, copper, zinc, cadmium and lead) in two forest areas selected in different places in Poland: the first one in the Swietokrzyskie Province (forests of the Staporkow Forest Division) and the second one in the Opolskie Province (forests of the Kup Forest Division). The degree of contamination of these forest areas with analytes was found using edible large-fruited mushrooms naturally occurring there - the research was carried out using passive biomonitoring method. Heavy metals in mushrooms (separately in stems and hats) as well as in soil samples were determined by atomic absorption spectrometry with excitation in flame (F-AAS). The obtained results were interpreted by assessing the degree of contamination of forest areas on the basis of concentrations of heavy metals in mushrooms. The obtained results indicate an increased accumulation of heavy metals in hats than in mushrooms stems. On the basis of the obtained data, significant contamination of forest areas with selected heavy metals was also found. This is confirmed by the possibility of using mushrooms as biomonitors in passive biomonitoring of forest areas, which are heavy metal accumulators. In the interpretation of the test results, the phytocumuling factor (PF) was also used. The degree of accumulation of heavy metals, from given forest areas - from soil to mushrooms - was assessed on the basis of determined PF coefficients. In addition, good bioavailability of the analysed analytes by mushrooms was found. Additionally, on the basis of the conducted studies, the possibility of mushroom consumption was assessed - they are not suitable for consumption due to the fact that the permissible concentration standards of heavy metals contained in mushrooms were exceeded.
The aim of the carried out research was the assessment of the possibility to use a popular bioindicator - Pleurozium schreberi mosses as a biosensor of the air pollution in living quarters with the analytes originating from tobacco smoke. The moss bag method of active biomonitoring, popular in environmental studies, was applied; the method is based on exposing mosses collected in clean areas in the locations polluted with, for example, heavy metals. However, this experiment involved exposing mosses in living quarters, in which approximately 10 cigarettes were smoked daily (first room - kitchen). For the purpose of comparison, moss samples were also placed in another room (bedroom), which was potentially not polluted. After three months of exposure, the following heavy metals were determined in mosses: Mn, Fe, Ni, Cu, Zn, Cd, Pb and Hg, using the atomic absorption spectrometry method. Additionally, these analytes were also determined in hair samples from the persons smoking in the room and from other smokers; the determined metal concentrations were compared with the results of the studies carried out using hair samples collected from non-smokers. On the basis of carried out research it was confirmed that, among others, the mosses exposed in living quarters accumulate heavy metals, such as Ni, Zn, Pb and Hg, which originate from tobacco smoke. Higher heavy metal concentrations were determined in hair samples from smokers, compared to hair samples from non-smokers.