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  • Author: Pawan Kumar Dutt x
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Using Patent Development, Education Policy and Research and Development Expenditure Policy to Understand Differences Between Countries – The Case of Estonia and Germany


Innovation is the key factor for economic growth. RDI policies pursued in a wholesome manner can have long term social significance. The true value of an invention depends upon factors such as its economic value, strategic value, cultural value and social value. Estonia and Germany share a long historical and legal connection. The German economy is strong and Germany has safeguarded it’s manufacturing, mining and construction sector through incremental innovation and focused state funding for RDI activities. Germany runs cost efficient entrepreneurship promotion programs. RDI in Estonia is dependent upon EU funding. Estonia lags behind Germany in respect of several global rankings related to technology and innovativeness. To make the Estonian economy knowledge-driven and technologically intensive, the state must focus on cultural, economic, social and strategic factors. Estonia should adopt RDI policies similar to Germany and also use the new UP regime to help its SMEs to acquire foreign patents.

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Using Patent Development, Education Policy and Research and Development Expenditure Policy to Increase Technological Competitiveness of Small European Union Member States


The Chinese Belt and Road Initiative will open new trade routes between China and the European Union (EU) and increase competition pressures on smaller EU member states. This article ranks where states like Estonia stand internationally in terms of innovativeness (and consequent competitiveness) by conducting an econometric study of patent development, education policy and research and development (R&D) expenditure policy. The authors claim that small member states such as Estonia should follow the example of countries such as Germany and adopt policies which focus more on increased public spending on R&D and innovation in public universities of science and technology, and raise support for high tech startups with a strong focus on international patenting. Member States must go further and subsidise R&D activities by focusing, inter alia, on filing of foreign patents such as triadic patents.

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