The Czech Republic has been dealing for the last four years with a legal revolution in the field of private law. A new Civil Code was adopted in 2012 and many new and forgotten legal figures were restored in the text of the code. An interesting example of forgotten legal figures is the superficiary right of building, which has again entered the legal order of the Czech Republic after a long one hundred years. Unlike the Act on the Superficiary Right of Building of 1912, the new Civil Code extends the scope of persons that may create the superficiary right of building to their land. This should eliminate the obstacle that has substantially limited its wider use. The superficiary right of building is not likely to become a legal concept very frequently seen in public registers. The aim of this paper is, therefore, a reflection on divided ownership and the purpose and genesis of the superficiary right of building in relation to its origins, as well as a prediction of future developments of this legal concept in the real estate market. To analyse the concept, the paper employs formal and legal methods (logical, grammatical and historical method). A comparative study is conducted in the spirit of the comparative method. The superficiary right of building is a suitable complement to the range of options of property rights offered by the new Civil Code. The author concludes that the use of the superficiary right of building, although not limited in comparison with the 1912 Act, will likely be less frequent and focused on longer-term projects.
This paper aims to describe one part of the issue - the fact that a living animal is not a thing. Does that mean that one could not “own” an animal, or perhaps that an animal as a subject of rights? Will it be liable for damage it causes? The author believe that the provision specifically aims at pets and it is a pity that it is not explicitly mentioned. The different attitude of legislator is also reflected in compensation for damage, which now involves a special material element of compensation for damage caused by and to an animal. These and other aspects are addressed in this paper.
The new approach to a thing enables the concept of residential co-ownership within the superficiary right of building. Residential co-ownership may be created where a building with at least two apartments forms the component part of the immovable thing. The superficiary right of building is established as a derivative of the superficies solo cedit principle. Therefore, it requires the accession of building and land. The building is no longer a separate thing in the legal sense, but part of the superficiary right of building. If the building which is part of the superficiary right of building contains two apartments, then residential co-ownership may also be established as part of the superficiary right of building
Clonal plants are very often among the first species to establish during primary succession. They may rapidly capture available space due to efficient vegetative propagation, but the question arises whether they may also rely on seed bank or seed rain during expansion and recovery after a possible disturbance. This question becomes increasingly important in extreme conditions of industrial deposit investigated in this study. We explored the two aforementioned seed sources in a clonal grass Calamagrostis epigejos within an ecotoxicologically stressed environment - abandoned tailings containment (former sedimentation basin) - from manganese-ore mining. Density of seeds found in seed rain was 617 seeds m-2, and in soil seed bank 220 seeds m-2, based on an autumn survey. Soil seed pool was almost depleted until the following spring as only 13 seeds m-2 were present. This pattern contrasted with the capacity of C. epigejos to build a persistent soil seed bank as shown by a burial experiment. Seed rain was thus identified to be the sole reliable seed source that may assist in recovery of this species after a possible disturbance
Changes of Grassland Vegetation in Surroundings of New Railway Flyover (Eastern Bohemia, Czech Republic). Part I: Plant Communities and Permanent Habitat Plots
Paper shows (1) the results based on vegetation monitoring during the time period 1975-2005 in the grassland segment of undulated landscape along railway corridor close to village Dlouhá Třebová (Ústí nad Orlicí district, Eastern Bohemia, Czech Republic). Survey was focused on the meadow communities, identification of phycenological changes by comparison of historical phytosociological records (1975) with the present ones (2005). (2) Actual relevés taken within transect design showed that there is direct dependence between the meadow species composition and soil moisture gradient. Along the soil moisture gradient different formations can be found: Carex acuta communities occupying the wet sites close to river bank with high groundwater table, followed by wet Calthion meadows with Cirsium rivulare in mosaic with Holcus lanatus formation on drier microsites. Arrhenatherum elatius stands grow in mesic conditions in contact with Calthion wet meadows. Dry sites on high slope are dominated by Festuca rubra. There are also some plant species of semi-thermophilous flora and species that prefer more acid soil reaction as a part of grassland complex. Meadow biotopes which were not affected by site alteration during bridge building, and communities with Carex acuta seem to be relatively stable in time. There are two populations of protected rare plant species in the locality: first an orchid Dactylorhiza majalis and the second Gentianopsis ciliata. (3) The railway reconstruction resulted mainly into degradation processes of grassland sites which is documented by the sown plant mixture or ruderal plant assemblages.
Attractive and repulsive forces acting in the slurry due to different ions absorbed on surface of fine particles, especially colloidal ones, strongly affect the flow behaviour of highly concentrated fine-grained slurries. The attractive forces between the fine-grained solid particles initiate the coagulation process, which gives rise to voluminous aggregates where a large amount of water is fixed. A modification of the physical-chemical environment of the slurry by addition of a peptizing agent produces repulsive forces between particles. They result in destruction of the aggregates, water originally fixed in the aggregates is liberated, the viscous friction can play a larger role in the slurry, which is liquefied. To prove these process three different kaolin-water mixtures were tested with an overpressure capillary viscometer, rotational viscometer, and experimental pipeline loop. The effect of two peptizing agents and their concentration was investigated. It was demonstrated that even very low concentration of peptizing agent results in a significant reduction in the apparent viscosity and in the yield stress.
Divided ownership gives rise to a number of problems. The reintroduction of the superficies solo cedit principle and the superficiary right of building into the Czech law does not, of course, mean the return of feudal relationships. However, it should be reminded that it disrupts indivisibility (exclusivity, completeness, limitlessness) of ownership, which is traditionally seen as the foundation of ownership right. The authors use primarily comparative and historical methods in their research on this topic. In its today form, we understand divided ownership as a simplification that serves as ideological abstraction for a situation where the owner is subject to a long-term limitation by a very broad in rem right of another, which is hereditary and alienable. In this context we talk about three approaches to divided ownership in jurisprudence: (a) it does not exist at all; (b) it is limited solely to the feudal era; (c) it is a general term without relation to any specific social situation.
Pavel Horký, Jiri Skladanka, Pavel Nevrkla and Petr Slama
The aim of the experiment was to determine the effect of selected antioxidants (selenium, copper, vitamins E and C) on the antioxidant status of breeding boar ejaculate and ejaculate quality. In the first control group of boars (n = 10), the amount of antioxidants was not increased in feed. The second experimental group (n = 10) received the addition of selenium (0.5 mg/kg of diet), copper (10 mg/kg of diet), vitamin C (350 mg/kg of diet) and vitamin E (70 mg/kg of diet) in feed. The experiment lasted for 90 days. The addition of antioxidants increased GPx (by 28%), selenium content (by 49%; P<0.05), SOD (by 9%; P<0.05) and level of copper (by 63%; P<0.05) in the experimental group of boars. In the control group, the decrease of sperm motility (by 22%; P<0.05) was found at the end of the experiment. Other measured parameters such as ABTS antioxidant capacity, levels of MDA, metallothionein, zinc, ejaculate volume, concentration, total count of sperm and percentage of abnormal sperm cells were not significantly affected. The above mentioned results show that the addition of antioxidants does not increase the ejaculate quality but their lack can damage the quality indicators of boar ejaculate.
Petr Roule, Ondřej Jakubov, Pavel Kovář, Petr Kařmařík and František Vejražka
Signal processing of the global navigation satellite systems (GNSS) is a computationally demanding task due to the wide bandwidth of the signals and their complicated modulation schemes. The classical GNSS receivers therefore utilize tailored digital signal processors (DSP) not being flexible in nature. Fortunately, the up-to-date parallel processors or graphical processing units (GPUs) dispose sufficient computational power for processing of not only relatively narrow band GPS L1 C/A signal but also the modernized GPS, GLONASS, Galileo and COMPASS signals.
The performance improvement of the modern processors is based on the constantly increasing number of cores. This trend is evident not only from the development of the central processing units (CPUs), but also from the development of GPUs that are nowadays equipped with up to several hundreds of cores optimized for video signals. GPUs include special vector instructions that support implementation of massive parallelism. The new GPUs, named as general-purpose computation on graphics processing units (GPGPU), are able to process both graphic and general data, thus making the GNSS signal processing possible.
Application programming interfaces (APIs) supporting GPU parallel processing have been developed and standardized. The most general one, Open Computing Language (Open CL), is now supported by most of the GPU vendors. Next, Compute Unified Device Architecture (CUDA) language was developed for NVidia graphic cards. The CUDA language features optimized signal processing libraries including efficient implementation of the fast Fourier transform (FFT).
In this paper, we study the applicability of the GPU approach in GNSS signal acquisition. Two common parallel DSP methods, parallel code space search (PCSS) and double-block zero padding (DBZP), have been investigated.
Implementations in the C language for CPU and the CUDA language for GPU are discussed and compared with respect to the acquisition time. It is shown that for signals with long ranging codes (with 10230 number of chips - Galileo E5, GPS L5 etc.).
Paper presented at the "European Navigation Conference 2012", held in Gdansk, Poland
Petr Maděra, Pavel Kovář, Jaroslav Vojta, Daniel Volařík, Luboš Úradníček, Alena Salašová, Jaroslav Koblížek and Petr Jelínek
The paved (tarmac) roads had been constructed on Soqotra island over the last 15 years. The vegetation along the roads was disturbed and the erosion started immediately after the disturbance caused by the road construction. Our assumption is that biotechnical measurements should prevent the problems caused by erosion and improve stabilization of road edges. The knowledge of plant species which are able to grow in unfavourable conditions along the roads is important for correct selection of plants used for outplanting. The vegetation succession was observed using phytosociological relevés as a tool of recording and mapping assambblages of plants species along the roads as new linear structures in the landscape. Data from phytosociological relevés were analysed and the succession was characterised in different altitudes. The results can help us to select group of plants (especially shrubs and trees), which are suitable to be used as stabilizing green mantle in various site conditions and for different purposes (anti-erosional, ornamental, protection against noise or dust, etc.).