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Danica Krupová and Pavel Pavlenda

Abstract

This review paper summarises the development of forest monitoring in Europe and in Slovakia. Since 1986 Forest Research Institute has been performing monitoring activities at the systematic grid of 16×16 km on permanent monitoring plots of Level I (extensive monitoring) and since 1995 on 9 plots of II. Level (intensive monitoring), which is closely connected with programme ICP Forests and PMS Forests. However, during 1991-1992 monitoring on 1189 plots in the grid of 4×4 km in Slovakia was done by Lesoprojekt Zvolen, which was repeated during the last 10 years as a part of LHP (every year 1/10 territory). This paper describes briefly also surveys and monitoring activities of different monitoring systems, parameters, methods and the perspectives of monitoring of the forest condition

Open access

Tibor Priwitzer, Jozef Pajtík, Bohdan Konôpka, Jozef Ištoňa and Pavel Pavlenda

Alokácia uhlíka v lesnom ekosystéme - prípadové štúdie z mladých borových porastov

V príspevku sú uvedené výsledky zo stanovenia uhlíkových zásob v lesných ekosystémoch na príklade mladých borových porastov. Stromová biomasa na experimentálnych plochách bola stanovená po jednotlivých komponentoch (korene, kmeň, vetvy a asimilačný aparát) s využitím meraných dát a alometrických rovníc. Na základe priamych meraní sa vypočítalo množstvo biomasy prízemnej vegetácie a opadu. Okrem toho bola stanovená aj zásoba pôdneho uhlíka. Celkové zásoby uhlíka boli vyjadrené v tonách na hektár

Open access

Rastislav Raši, Emil Cienciala, Tibor Priwitzer, Štěpán Palán and Pavel Pavlenda

Abstract

The forests in Slovakia are managed according to the forest management plans. The limits for cuttings are prescribed according to the rules of sustainable forest management. Thus, the produced timber becomes the sustainable natural resource. The purpose of wood use has implications for the carbon balance. Wood products for long term use represent a carbon pool from which carbon is released according to decay of products. The method for calculation and results of carbon balance of harvested wood products in Slovakia are provided in this paper. According to the results, the total amount of carbon stored in the harvested wood products in Slovakia have had an increasing trend in the last years and reached almost 15 Tg. The calculation follows the methods and good practice guidance arising from the Kyoto Protocol.

Open access

Danica Krupová, Věra Fadrhonsová, Hana Pavlendová, Pavel Pavlenda, Slávka Tóthová and Vít Šrámek

Abstract

Spatial and temporal variation of atmospheric depositions on the permanent monitoring plots of Level II of the ICP Forest programme in Czech and Slovak forest areas was described in this paper. The atmospheric bulk deposition of sulphur, ammonium and nitrate nitrogen from the years 2000–2016 were assessed and compared with the data obtained on European plots of this programme. The temporal developments of annual depositions in kg.ha−1.year−1 were determined by linear regression and displayed through maps. The most significant change during the reporting period was in the annual sulphur deposition, which was the statistically significant with rather sharp decrease on Slovak plots (P ≤ 0.01, R2 = 0.68) and with milder decrease in the Czech Republic (P ≤ 0.05, R2 = 0.23). There are small spatial and temporal differences in the deposition of the annual nitrate nitrogen depositions. The decrease was statistically more significant in Slovakia (P ≤ 0.01, R2 = 0.53) than in the Czech Republic (P ≤ 0.05, R2 = 0.30). The smallest changes were in annual depositions of ammonium nitrate, although the deposition was statistically significant in Slovakia (P ≤ 0.01, R2 = 0.42). In the Czech Republic dropped only slightly over the whole territory (except in the Beskydy Mts.) during evaluated period. The temporal variations of polluting components revealed significant differences between developments of depositions on the different plots of both republics. The sulphur and nitrogen depositions in the Slovak and Czech Republic persistently ranking among the highest in Europe, what is caused by local and transboundary anthropogenic emission.

Open access

Danica Krupová, Michal Bošeľa, Pavel Pavlenda and Slávka Tóthová

Abstract

The aim of this paper was to analyse temporal changes in chemism of atmospheric deposition in Slovakia. Two kinds of deposition, bulk and throughfall were considered and analysed for the period of 1996-2010. Data acquired from permanent monitoring plots (PMP) of Level II were used for this purpose. These plots were established as a part of the ICP Forests Programme. The changes in the composition of deposition were identified for the spruce and beech plots. The results were compared among three spruce plots, two beech plots and one mixed spruce-beech-fir plot. Precipitation pH was higher on the beech than on the spruce plots and during the spotted period increased on both spruce and beech plots. Depositions of cations decreased significantly on the spruce and beech plots in bulk deposition for all elements except for calcium. The significant decline of sulphur and ammonium nitrogen was found on both spruce and beech plots, but the highest decrease of sulphur deposition was found in throughfall precipitation (R2 = 0.75). The amount of nitrate nitrogen did not change during the study period.

Open access

Bohdan Konôpka, Jozef Pajtík, Vladimír Šebeň, Michal Bošeľa, František Máliš, Tibor Priwitzer and Pavel Pavlenda

Abstract

The research site “Vrchslatina” was established in the spring of 2009 with the aim of studying production processes and the structure of net primary productivity in young forest stands. The beech and spruce stands grown at the site were selected because they originated from natural regeneration and are nearly of the same age. In 2009, we established 5 research plots in each stand with the aim of measuring basic tree characteristics. Moreover, we excavated entire trees to construct allometric relations for the specific tree compartments. In the consecutive years (2010, 2011 and 2012), we also included grass communities dominated by Calamagrostis epigejos in our studies. Besides studying production processes of all tree compartments (i.e. for trees: foliages, branches, stem, coarse and fine roots, for grasses and herbs: below- and above-ground parts), we monitored several atmospheric characteristics, followed by soil characteristics and eventually added a measurement of soil respiration. The results indicated that forest stands (even though they were in their initial growth stages) sequestrated much more carbon than the grass communities. Moreover, we proved the considerable influence of climatic conditions (especially the sum of precipitation) in the particular years for net primary productivity.

Open access

Zuzana Sitková, Paulína Nalevanková, Katarína Střelcová, Peter Fleischer Jr., Marek Ježík, Roman Sitko, Pavel Pavlenda and Tomáš Hlásny

Abstract

We focus on the analysis of sap flow and stem circumference changes in European beech (Fagus sylvatica, L.) in relation to available soil water and weather conditions during the growing seasons 2012 and 2013. The objective was to examine how soil water potential affects growth and transpiration of a mature beech stand situated at the lower distributional limit of beech in Slovakia. To be able to evaluate beech response to soil water shortage, we irrigated a group of 6 trees during the period of pronounced drought, while the control group of other 6 trees remained exposed to actual weather conditions. Mean air temperatures of both seasons were considerably above the long-term average and the temporal pattern of precipitation differed between the years. During the whole growing season 2012, beech samples transpired an average volume of 6.9 m3 of water in the control and 7.7 m3 in the irrigated group. A slightly higher average volume was found in the growing season 2013 under both treatments (7.7 m3 in control and 10.5 m3 in irrigated trees). In the drought period 2012, when the irrigation experiment was commenced, the sap flow in the control group was reduced by 30% as compared with the irrigated group. In 2013, a 38.1% difference in sap flow was observed between the groups. Sap flow in the non-irrigated trees decreased with reducing soil moisture, and ceased at soil water potential -0.6 MPa. In both treatments and years, we found significant correlations between hourly sap flow and investigated weather variables. A reduction in stem circumferences of the control trees, which was observed during stem shrinkage phase, was up to 19% in 2012 and 10% in 2013. We conclude that stem circumference shrinkage during the peak of soil drought was induced by the cessation in the sap flow process.