The use of crumb rubber in the modification of asphalt has occurred because of the problems related to disposal of scrap tires. However, the use of scrap tires in asphalt pavements, known as asphalt rubber pavements, can minimize environmental impacts and maximize conservation of natural resources. The textile fibers from recycled tires are typically disposed of in landfills or used in energetic valorization, but similar to other fibers, they can be used as a valuable resource in the reinforcement of engineering materials such as asphalt mixtures. Thus, this work aims at studying the use of textile fibers recycled from ground tires in the reinforcement of conventional asphalt mixtures. The application of textile fibers from ground tires was evaluated through laboratory tests on specimens extracted from slabs produced in the laboratory. Indirect tensile tests were performed on a series of nine asphalt mixtures with different fiber and asphalt contents and compared with a conventional mixture. The results obtained from a 50/70 pen asphalt were used to define three asphalt mixture configurations to be used with 35/50 pen asphalt. The results indicate that the textile fibers recycled from used tires can be a valuable resource in the reinforcement of asphalt mixtures.
Brazilians mixtures containing asphalt rubber were evaluated by mechanical laboratory tests. A conventional mixture with asphalt CAP-50/70 was produced as a mixture control. With the aim of compare the Brazilians mixtures performance, a Portuguese asphalt rubber mixture was tested as well. The testing set involved the determination of the mechanical properties, fatigue and permanent deformation, of asphalt rubber produced by wet process through two different systems: continuous blend and terminal blend. The asphalt rubber morphology was evaluated in order to determine the compatibility of the systems. The asphalt rubber mixtures exhibit good resistance to permanent deformation and prolonged fatigue life in relation to mixture control. Therefore it is concluded that the application of asphalt rubber alters the characteristics of asphalt mixture in a very beneficial way.
The purpose of this study was to analyse players’ positional variability during the 2012 UEFA European Championship by applying principal component analysis (PCA) to data gathered from heat maps posted on the UEFA website. We analysed the teams that reached the finals and semi-finals of the competition. The players’ 2D coordinates from each match were obtained by applying an image-processing algorithm to the heat maps. With all the players’ 2D coordinates for each match, we applied PCA to identify the directions of greatest variability. Then, two orthogonal segments were centred on each player’s mean position for all matches. The segments’ directions were driven by the eigenvectors of the PCA, and the length of each segment was defined as one standard deviation around the mean. Finally, an ellipse was circumscribed around both segments. To represent player variability, segment lengths and elliptical areas were analysed. The results demonstrate that Portugal exhibited the lowest variability, followed by Germany, Spain and Italy. Additionally, a graphical representation of every player’s ellipse provided insight into the teams’ organisational features throughout the competition. The presented study provides important information regarding soccer teams’ tactical strategy in high-level championships that allows coaches to better control team organisation on the pitch.
The aim of the present study was to investigate the influence of maximum strength and power levels on change of direction (COD) ability and deficit in elite soccer and rugby players. Seventy-eight elite athletes (soccer, n = 46; rugby, n = 32) performed the following assessments: squat and countermovement jumps (SJ and CMJ), 1 repetition-maximum in the half-squat exercise (HS 1RM), peak power (PP) in the jump-squat exercise, and 20-m linear sprint and Zigzag COD tests. Utilizing the median split analysis, athletes were divided into two groups according to their HS 1RM and PP JS (e.g., higher and lower HS 1RM and higher and lower PP JS). The magnitude-based inference method was used to analyze the differences between groups in the physical performance tests. Athletes in the high strength and power groups outperformed their weaker and less powerful counterparts in all speed and power measurements (i.e., 5-, 10-, and 20-m sprint velocity, Zigzag COD speed, and CMJ and SJ height). In contrast, stronger and more powerful athletes displayed greater COD deficits. The present data indicate that players with superior strength-power capacity tend to be less efficient at changing direction, relative to maximum sprinting speed, despite being faster in linear trajectories. From these results, it appears that current strength and power training practices in team-sports are potentially not the “most appropriate” to increase the aptitude of a given athlete to efficiently utilize his/her neuromuscular abilities during COD maneuvers. Nevertheless, it remains unknown whether more multifaceted training programs are effective in decreasing COD deficits.
Tourism is a strategic sector in Portugal since it generates employment and it is a factor of economic and social development. The tourism sector not only has an intensive need of labour force but also provides employment opportunity to a range of qualifications. Being an industry of people, it directly depends on the performance of activities, skills, professionalism, quality and competitiveness. The main objective of this article is to present the HC Tourism project, which aims to seek and understand the needs of skills in tourism industry by studying the active companies that belong to the tourism economic subsectors, by region and subsector of economic activity. The methodology used in this project is based on a qualitative and quantitative approach, throughout the collection of primary and secondary data. The qualitative approach was based on a literature review which allowed to compile a list of 150 skills, divided under four domains: i) soft skills; ii) hard skills; iii) management skills; iv) transversal skills. The quantitative approach returned primary data, which were collected through an online survey implemented and sent to national tourist entrepreneurs, expecting to develop the ideal profile of the tourism human resources, based on a sample of 555 answers.
The aim of this study was to compare the acute effects of performing half squats (HSs) with different loading intensities (1, 3, and 5 repetitions maximum [RM], and 60% 1RM) and a different number of sets (1, 2, and 3) on the countermovement jump (CMJ) performance of 18 highly-trained male subjects. Participants were submitted to four experimental conditions (1RM, 3RM, 5RM, and 60% 1RM) in randomized order. The CMJ was assessed before and after each set. Differences in CMJ performance between the distinct experimental conditions and individual responses in CMJ performance induced by the different protocols were analyzed via the magnitude-based inference method. Overall, significant improvements were detected in individual CMJ heights after each activation protocol. It can be concluded that the use of 1 to 3 sets of HSs performed at moderate-to-high loads may be an effective strategy to improve jump performance in highly-trained subjects. Nevertheless, despite the high efficiency of the protocols tested here, coaches and researchers are strongly encouraged to perform individualized assessments within the proposed range of loads and sets, to find optimal and tailored post-activation potentiation protocols.
The aim of this study was to compare the acute effects of performing half squats (HSs) with different loading intensities (1, 3, and 5 repetitions maximum [RM], and 60% 1RM) and a different number of sets (1, 2, and 3) on the countermovement jump (CMJ) performance of 18 highly‐trained male subjects. Participants were submitted to four experimental conditions (1RM, 3RM, 5RM, and 60% 1RM) in randomized order. The CMJ was assessed before and after each set. Differences in CMJ performance between the distinct experimental conditions and individual responses in CMJ performance induced by the different protocols were analyzed via the magnitude‐based inference method. Overall, significant improvements were detected in individual CMJ heights after each activation protocol. It can be concluded that the use of 1 to 3 sets of HSs performed at moderate‐to‐high loads may be an effective strategy to improve jump performance in highly‐trained subjects. Nonetheless, despite the high efficiency of the protocols tested here, coaches and researchers are strongly encouraged to perform individualized assessments within the proposed range of loads and sets, to find optimal and tailored post‐activation potentiation protocols.