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  • Author: Paul Perez x
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Cooperative Learning A Current Snapshot: Before, During and After Implementation


Cooperative Learning’s (CL) implementation has received an incredible amount of research attention from academics held in high esteem. However, the researcher claims that it is up to every new generation of educators to formulate their conclusions regarding CL’s effectiveness in a contemporary classroom. Although the author begins by situating CL as a pedagogical tool that goes back nearly fifty years and insinuates a progression in use, he also claims CL should not only be compared to itself for scrutiny but it should be compared with the current generation’s academic needs. Later Baby Boomers that graduated high school in the 1980’s experienced a radically different academia than Generation X, Y, or Gen Z’ers, consequently a valid comparative analysis must see CL through present day lens. The author further claims, with the exception of references to CL’s beginnings, the date parameter for findings are limited to the last fifteen months which includes all of 2017 and half of 2016. The document continues by contextualizing CL’s precursors along with its distinctive historical genesis. Furthermore, the objective of this paper is not only to take a snapshot of the current CL literature based on the iconic five elements of CL formulated by David W. Johnson, Roger T. Johnson, and Edythe Johnson Holubec (1989), but to also provide a litmus test on the current relevancy of CL in thepost-millennial age.The author claims his theoretical framework centers on several factors composed of cognitive, behavioral, and social interdependence. The conclusions are based on three tendencies or categories in the literature that point to a) pre-implementation, b) implementation and c) post-implementation. These three tendencies are also described as the rationalization for implementation, context of the implementation, and the effects of CL’s outcomes. Furthermore, the results chronical the importance of CL in maintaining a student’s social presence in light of current social or anti-social trends.

Open access
AIOSAT - Autonomous Indoor & Outdoor Safety Tracking System


Even though satellite-based positioning increases rescue workers’ safety and efficiency, signal availability, reliability, and accuracy are often poor during fire operations, due to terrain formation, natural and structural obstacles or even the conditions of the operation. In central Europe, the stakeholders report a strong necessity to complement the location for mixed indoor-outdoor and GNSS blocked scenarios. As such, location information often needs to be augmented. For that, European Global Navigation Satellite System Galileo could help by improving the availability of the satellites with different features. Moreover, a multi-sensored collaborative system could also take advantage of the rescue personnel who are already involved in firefighting and complement the input data for positioning.

The Autonomous Indoor & Outdoor Safety Tracking System (AIOSAT) is a multinational project founded through the Horizon 2020 program, with seven partners from Spain, Netherlands and Belgium. It is reaching the first year of progress (out of 3) and the overarching objective of AIOSAT system is to advance beyond the state of the art in tracking rescue workers by creating a high availability and high integrity team positioning and tracking system. On the system level approach, this goal is achieved by fusing the GNSS, EDAS/EGNOS, pedestrian dead reckoning and ultra-wide band ranging information, possibly augmented with map data. The system should be able to work both inside buildings and rural areas, which are the test cases defined by the final users involved in the consortium and the advisory board panel of the project

Open access
Pharmacokinetics and pharmacodynamics of anti-infective agents during continuous veno-venous hemofiltration in critically ill patients: Lessons learned from an ancillary study of the IVOIRE trial



Hemofiltration rate, changes in blood and ultrafiltration flow, and discrepancies between the prescribed and administered doses strongly influence pharmacokinetics (PK) and pharmacodynamics (PD) of antimicrobial agents during continuous veno-venous hemofiltration (CVVH) in critically ill patients.


Ancillary data were from the prospective multicenter IVOIRE (hIgh VOlume in Intensive caRE) study. High volume (HV, 70 mL/kg/h) was at random compared with standard volume (SV, 35 mL/kg/h) CVVH in septic shock patients with acute kidney injury (AKI). PK/PD parameters for all antimicrobial agents used in each patient were studied during five days.


Antimicrobial treatment met efficacy targets for both percentage of time above the minimal inhibitory concentration and inhibitory quotient. A significant correlation was observed between the ultrafiltration flow and total systemic clearance (Spearman test: P < 0.005) and between CVVH clearance and drug elimination half-life (Spearman test: P < 0.005). All agents were easily filtered. Mean sieving coefficient ranged from 38.7% to 96.7%. Mean elimination half-life of all agents was significantly shorter during HV-CVVH (from 1.29 to 28.54 h) than during SV-CVVH (from 1.51 to 33.85 h) (P < 0.05).


This study confirms that CVVH influences the PK/PD behavior of most antimicrobial agents. Antimicrobial elimination was directly correlated with convection rate. Current antimicrobial dose recommendations will expose patients to underdosing and increase the risk for treatment failure and development of resistance. Dose recommendations are proposed for some major antibiotic and antifungal treatments in patients receiving at least 25 mL/kg/h CVVH.

Open access