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Open access

Jonathan Sinclair and Paul J. Taylor

Abstract

Purpose. Female runners typically suffer more from chronic running injuries than age-matched males, although the exact biome-chanical mechanisms behind the increased susceptibility of female runners are unknown. This study aimed to compare sex differences in tibiocalcaneal kinematics during the stance phase of running. Methods. Twenty male and twenty female participants ran at 4.0 m · s–1. Tibiocalcaneal kinematics were measured using an eight-camera motion analysis system and compared using independent samples t tests. Results. Peak eversion and tibial internal rotation angles were shown to be significantly greater in female runners. Conclusions. based on these observations, it was determined that female runners may be at increased risk from chronic injury development in relation to excessive tibiocalcaneal motions in the coronal and transverse planes.

Open access

Jonathan Sinclair, Paul J. Taylor and Sarah J. Hobbs

Abstract

Purpose. The transmission of tibial accelerations through the musculoskeletal system may contribute to the aetiology of injuries. Therefore, determining the mechanisms that regulate impact accelerations may have potential clinical significance. This study aimed to determine the influence of lower extremity kinematics on the regulation of both time and frequency domain characteristics of tibial accelerations during running. Methods. Forty participants ran at 4.0 m · s-1 ± 5%. Three-dimensional joint kinematics from the hip, knee and ankle were measured using an eight-camera motion analysis system operating at 250 Hz. Regression analyses treating time and frequency domain tibial acceleration parameters as criterion variables were used to identify lower extremity parameters associated with the passive regulation of impact accelerations. Results. The overall regression model yielded an adj. R2 = 0.13, p 0.01. Knee flexion velocity at footstrike was identified as a significant regulator of tibial accelerations in the time domain. No kinematic variables were identified as significantly related to the frequency domain properties of the signal. Conclusions. The findings of the current investigation suggest that sagittal plane knee flexion velocity at footstrike can regulate the magnitude of impact loading linked to the development of chronic injuries.

Open access

Jonathan Sinclair, Hannah Frances Shore, Paul J. Taylor and Stephen Atkins

Abstract

Purpose. Female runners are known to be at greater risk from chronic running injuries than age-matched males, although the exact mechanisms are often poorly understood. The aim of the current investigation was to determine if female recreational runners exhibit distinct limb and joint stiffness characteristics in relation to their male counterparts. Methods. Fourteen male and fourteen female runners ran over a force platform at 4.0 m · s-1. Lower limb kinematics were collected using an eight-camera optoelectric motion capture system operating at 250 Hz. Measures of limb and joint stiffness were calculated as a function of limb length and joint moments divided by the extent of limb and joint excursion. All stiffness and joint moment parameters were normalized to body mass. Sex differences in normalized limb and knee and ankle joint stiffness were examined statistically using independent samples t tests. Results. The results indicate that normalized limb (male = 0.18 ± 0.07, female = 0.37 ± 0.10 kN · kg · m-1) and knee stiffness (male = 5.59 ± 2.02, female = 7.34 ± 1.78 Nm · kg · rad-1) were significantly greater in female runners. Conclusions. On the basis that normalized knee and limb stiffness were shown to be significantly greater in female runners, the findings from the current investigation may provide further insight into the aetiology of the distinct injury patterns observed between sexes.

Open access

Jonathan Sinclair, Paul J Taylor and Lindsay Bottoms

Cardan/Euler angles represent the most common technique for the quantification of segmental rotations. Cardan angles are influenced by their ordered sequence, and sensitive to planar-cross talk from the dominant rotation plane, which may affect the angular parameters. The International Society of Biomechanics (ISB) currently recommends a sagittal, coronal, and then transverse (XYZ) ordered sequence, although it has been proposed that when quantifying non-sagittal rotations this may not be the most appropriate technique. This study examined the influence of the helical and six available Cardan sequences on lower extremity three-dimensional (3-D) kinematics of the lead leg during the fencing lunge. Kinematic data were obtained using a 3-D motion capture system as participants completed simulated lunges. Repeated measures ANOVAs were used to compare discrete kinematic parameters, and intraclass correlations were also utilized to determine evidence of planar crosstalk. The results indicate that in all three planes of rotation, peak angle and range of motion angles using the YXZ and ZXY sequences were significantly greater than the other sequences. It was also noted that the utilization of the YXZ and ZXY sequences was associated with the strongest correlations from the sagittal plane, and the XYZ sequence was found habitually to be associated with the lowest correlations. It appears that for accurate representation of 3-D kinematics of the lead leg during the fencing lunge, the XYZ sequence is the most appropriate and as such its continued utilization is encouraged.

Open access

Jonathan Sinclair, Andrew Greenhalgh, Paul J. Taylor, Christopher James Edmundson, Darrell Brooks and Sarah Jane Hobbs

Abstract

Purpose. The aim of the current investigation was to compare the 3-D tibiocalcaneal kinematics between skin- and shoe-mounted markers. Methods. Eleven male participants ran at 4.0m/s ± 5% along a 22 m runway. Tibiocalcaneal kinematics were captured simultaneously using markers placed externally on the shoe and on the skin through windows cut in the shoe. Paired t-tests were used to compare the 3-D kinematic parameters, and intraclass correlations were employed to contrast the kinematic waveforms. Results. Strong correlations were observed between the waveforms at R2 0.85. However, foot movements such as eversion range of motion, peak eversion, peak transverse plane range of motion, velocity of external rotation and peak eversion velocity were all significantly underestimated using shoe-mounted markers. Conclusions. The results indicate that shoe-mounted markers do not fully represent true foot movement.