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Open access

Jacek Krzyżak, Marta Pogrzeba, Szymon Rusinowski, John Clifton-Brown, Jon Paul McCalmont, Andreas Kiesel, Anja Mangold and Michal Mos

Abstract

When heavy metal contaminated soils are excluded from food production, biomass crops offer an alternative commercial opportunity. Perennial crops have potential for phytoremediation. Whilst the conditions at heavy metal contaminated sites are challenging, successful phytoremediation would bring significant economic and social benefits. Seed-based Miscanthus hybrids were tested alongside the commercial clone Miscanthus × giganteus on arable land, contaminated with Pb, Cd and Zn near Katowice. Before the randomized experimental plots were established (25m2 plots with plant density 2/m2) ‘time-zero’ soil samples were taken to determine initial levels of total (aqua regia) and bioavailable (CaCl2 extraction) concentration of Pb, Cd and Zn. After the growing season plant material was sampled during autumn (October, green harvest) and winter (March, brown harvest) to determine differences in heavy metal uptake. Results after the first growing season are presented, including the plot establishment success, biomass yield and heavy metal uptake.

Open access

Deirdre Giesen, Mario Vella, Charles F. Brady, Paul Brown, Daniela Ravindra and Anita Vaasen-Otten

Abstract

Managing response burden is key to ensuring an ongoing and efficient supply of fit-forpurpose data. While statistical organizations use multi-faceted approaches to achieve this, response burden management has become an essential element of the strategy used by the U.S. Census Bureau, Statistics New Zealand, Statistics Canada, and Statistics Netherlands. Working in collaboration with respondents, with internal resources dedicated to provide customized approaches for large respondents and with other stakeholders (constituency representatives, associations, etc.) response burden management endeavors to minimize burden and educate stakeholders on the benefit of official statistics. The role continues to evolve with important initiatives regarding the compilation of burden metrics, improvements to existing tracking tools, and an expanded communication role.