This paper presents a survey of the models and software applications used in telecommunication networks that can be used to carry out network planning and traffic engineering processes in deployable networks. Deployable networks are intended to provide communication services for organizations with responsibilities for emergency response or for government structures.
In order to provide assessment of mobile phone user exposure to electromagnetic fields emitted in the close vicinity of a mobile device we have measured real life UMTS and LTE signals at mobile data turn on. The paper presents some preliminary results of mobile phone user exposure assessment at mobile data turn by making use of a non-standardized procedure that enables the calculus of the radiated signal energy and duty cycle. Our results sustain that higher user exposure is expected within the first minute after mobile data is switched on as higher duty cycles and more than a third of the total radiated energy is found in this time period, as compared to the total signal monitoring time. Authors expect increased exposure if other application services are launched within this time frame. Moreover, special attention should be paid to user exposure assessment in the case of active call services with mobile data turned on. Because SAR is currently the sole standardized metrics in dosimetry, the authors propose the use of the measured signal radiated energy as well as the calculated duty cycle as complementary indicators of user exposure to electromagnetic fields in order to provide a more comprehensive view on mobile phone radiation exposure.
In this article we propose the use of the persistence spectrum to accurately assess the user’s exposure to electromagnetic field emitted by new generation of communication terminals. Persistent display view available within a Real Time Spectrum Analyzer (RTSA) enables a graphical observation of the main statistical parameters of a signal. A simple case study of exposure assessment was conducted by measuring the electric field strength in the close proximity of a mobile phone operated in a LTE-Advanced mobile communication network. The proposed measurement procedure is presented and then applied to a limited number of operating situations (VoIP, Video streaming, File upload, File download). We made use of the persistence spectrum capabilities to directly access the signal strength statistics in time. By this procedure we demonstrate a supplementary facility that enables direct visual tracing of exposure dynamics during real time usage of a specific mobile application.
This paper proposes a new Matlab-developed algorithm for automatic recognition of digital modulations using the constellation of states. Using this technique the automatic distinction between four digital modulation schemes (8-QAM, 16-QAM, 32-QAM and 64-QAM) was made. It has been seen that the efficiency of the algorithm is influenced by the type of modulation, the value of the signal-to-noise ratio and the number of samples. In the case of an AWGN noise channel the simulation results indicated that the value of SNR (signal-to-noise ratio) has a small influence on the recognition rate for lower-order QAM (8-QAM and 16-QAM). The length of the signal may change essentially the recognition rate of this algorithm especially for modulations with a high number of bits per symbol. Consequently, for the 64-QAM modulation in a case of 25dB signal-to-noise ratio the recognition rate is doubled if the sample rate is incresed from 5400 to 80640.
A portable radiocommunication device usually face-held during its use was chosen for characterizing its electromagnetic near-field distribution in air. Set to emit on a frequency of 440 MHz for digital voice communication with a maximum input power of 5 W, its antenna parameters were analyzed and the maps of field strengths were depicted up to distances of 20 cm from the device by using of a dual-sensor exposimeter. Since the occupational exposure safety limit for incident field levels was exceeded closer than 12 cm from the transceiver (for the magnetic field component), it became interesting to quantify the power loss in an alleged case of a brain containing also magnetite particles. Up to the present, only the electric field component was of interest when investigating biological effects of such exposures. With the new evidence from 2016, that human brain contains four orders of magnitude more magnetite nanocrystals than it was known before, a question rises in connection to the magnetic response of tissues impinged by fields with significant magnitudes and covering the hundreds of MHz frequency range. Starting from this question, we set-up a simulation in which a tissue with ferromagnetic content was mimicked for initial dosimetric computations
An analysis of the shielding effectiveness by the method of dual transversal electromagnetic cell is proposed for a set of conductive materials of the type wire-inserted textiles. Based on the experimental results, some of the materials are further on used to test their capability to effectively reduce the specific absorption rate of energy deposition in the head due to mobile phone, when they are covering the surface of the handset. It is demonstrated that both reducing and increasing the radiation that penetrates the head may appear, and this depends on both the material structure, its position and orientation relative to the device and to the frequency band the phone is emitting.
Portable transceivers emitting in the UHF radiofrequency band are sources of human electromagnetic exposure, when located in front of the face. Three output power levels were tested while the exposed target was a phantom filled with dielectric liquid simulating average human head behavior at the used frequency of 446 MHz. A flat phantom and a head phantom were scanned by an automatic E-field probe robot, based on the standardized procedure, in order to report specific absorption rates of energy deposition in the head. A discussion on the obtained results is provided, together with a comparison with other similar results in the literature. Consequences upon the safe use of such devices by public or by occupational personnel in the proximity of the brain and eyes are underlined.
By applying a non-standardized methodology and by using electric- and magnetic-field probes of small dimensions (< 1cm), we experimentally characterized the electromagnetic shielding properties of a fabric containing ferromagnetic microwires weaved on a single direction. Electronic microscopy and X-ray spectroscopy revealed the structure, dimensions and chemical elements content of the amorphous magnetic material. Electric shielding factor proved to be very low in the investigated frequency range, but magnetic shielding factor was high, especially when the weaving direction of the magnetic wires corresponded to the polarization direction of the emitting antenna, and showed some resonances. The magnetic shielding efficiency, if checked against an increasing incident magnetic flux density, proved not to change up to 200 nT. The investigated fabric have been previously proved to be very efficient in shielding the field emitted by a mobile phone in its near field, but present results show that near and far field shielding properties are different.
Radiocommunications in the HF band depend on the ionospheric parameters of radiowaves reflexion, though the quality of a radio link depends on: the time of day; season; solar cycle; geographical position. Taking into account the ionosphere characteristics over Romania, a forecasting is made over four cities in our country in order to provide the values of the critical frequency foF2 of the F2 ionospheric layer over a 24 hours cycle. A comparative analysis of this parameter is applied by using the International Reference Ionosphere model and interpolated experimental data collected from the European Ionosonde Service. Results show that the f0F2 values are slightly underestimated in all four locations in the model versus measurements, sustaining the necessity of own measurements in order to prepare quality data links in Romania if HF band is to be used for emergency data communications.
Even with the present-day development of mobile communications in UHF and SHF spectral bands and recent trends to move to mmWave, HF radio communications still offer advantages that make them exclusive in some application areas. Cognitive Radio principles can be applied to HF communications, to make use of the spectrum more efficiently. A significant improvement of Cognitive Radio technique can be achieved by spectrum occupancy prediction, which enables proactive efficient spectrum utilization. Hidden Markov Models (HMM) can be a useful tool for statistical spectrum occupancy prediction. In some of our previous works, we investigated a simple HMM in time domain, as well as a bidimensional model, that take into account both the time domain and the frequency domain. In this paper, we propose to extend the coverage of the model, by considering in addition to time and frequency the geographical position of the two points involved in the radio connection. The work is motivated by the fact that the two points of the radio link in HF can be far apart, and the channel availability at the two points could be different. Therefore, finding and exploiting correlations between the spectrum occupancy at the two points might improve the connectivity. The proposed model is validated using real spectrum occupancy data collected simultaneously at two locations situated in two cities, namely Timișoara and Sibiu, Romania. The measurements have been made using two identical USRP equipment, GPS coordinated, and identical HF broadband antennas.