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  • Author: Patrycjusz Mil x
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The Shape of Anterior-Posterior Curvatures of the Spine in Athletes Practising Selected Sports

Introduction. Practising sport at the professional level brings about considerable spinal loads. As a result of an intensive effort, the adaptation abilities of vertebrae, intervertebral discs, ligaments and muscles decrease, which, in turn, influences the size of physiological curvatures of the spine and at the same time the quality of body posture. The aim of the work was to evaluate the shape of anterior-posterior curvatures of the spine and to define the frequency of occurrence of body posture types in athletes practising selected sports. Material and methods. The research was conducted among 46 athletes from the following sections: athletics, handball, volleyball and taekwondo. Inclination angles of the curvatures of the spine were defined with the use of a posturometer: α angle (upper-thoracic segment), β angle (thoracic-lumbar segment), γ angle (lumbar-sacral segment) as well as the level of thoracic kyphosis (χ) and lumbar lordosis (λ). Every athlete's body posture type was defined. Results. It was revealed that in the shape of anterior-posterior curvatures of the spine in the examined athletes the level of thoracic kyphosis was higher than the level of lumbar lordosis. In all the athletes the biggest values were observed in the inclination of the upper-thoracic segment, whereas the lowest ones (except for taekwondo competitors) in the inclination of the lumbar-sacral segment. The most common types of body posture were kyphotic and balanced types. No type-III kyphosis and type-III lordosis were observed. Athletes practising selected sports generally had a proper body posture. An improper posture, especially a wrong posture, was observed in few athletes. Conclusion. The specificity of movements performed during the training applied in a particular sport may influence the shape of anterior-posterior curvatures of the spine and thus the type of body posture.

Abstract

Introduction. The human foot is an important and individual static-dynamic part of the movement apparatus. Physical activity is one of the many factors which has an impact on the arch of the foot, and specific sporting disciplines affect the morphological construction and active efficiency of the foot to differing degrees. The aim of this study was to evaluate the foot-arches of competitors training in the disciplines of athletics, handball, volleyball and taekwon-do, and to demon­strate the differences in the arching of the foot, depending on the discipline of the participant. Material and methods. Observation of a group of 46 student-competitors at the sports club of the Academic Sports Association (ASA) of the Faculty of Physical Education and Sport in Biała Podlaska, training in handball, volleyball, athletics and taekwon-do. Using information from plantograms, obtained using a podoscope, the following were analyzed: Wejsflog's indicator, the position of the big toe (hallux) - angle γ; theposition of toe V - angle β;the position of the heel - angle α. Results. The values given by Wejsflog's indicator show the presence of an asymmetry in the arch of the right foot compared to that of the left foot. The reason for this, according to Demczuk-Włodarczyk and Biec [1] may be the type of surface on which training is conducted. The authors demonstrate that fallen arches are less common in practitioners of taekwon-do, who usually train on an elastic mat, which confirms the results of earlier research conducted on competitors at the Academic Sports Association of the Faculty of Physical Education and Sport in Biała Podlaska. Conclusions. The occurrence of an abnormal formation of the arches that make up the arch of the foot, and of asymmetry in the arch between the left and right feet observed in the sample, shows the necessity of devoting greater attention to compensatory exercises that strengthen the short muscles of the foot and the muscles of the calf in the training process, in order to make up for frequently unbal­anced strain.