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Izabela Deperasińska, Patrycja Schulz and Andrzej K. Siwicki

Abstract

Salmonid alphavirus (SAV), genus Alphavirus, family Togaviridae, is a single-stranded RNA virus affecting Atlantic salmon (Salmo salar) and rainbow trout (Oncorhynchus mykiss). It is known to be responsible for pancreas disease (PD) and sleeping disease (SD) which are increasing problems, causing high fish mortality and economic losses in the European aquaculture industry. Pancreas disease was first described in Atlantic salmon in Scotland in 1976 and a similar disease caused by the closely related sleeping disease virus was first described in rainbow trout in France. There have also been reports of salmonid alphavirus infections from other European countries, including Ireland, England, Norway, Germany, Italy, and Spain. Salmonid alphaviruses have been classified into six subtypes (SAV1–6). SAV1 and SAV4–6 cause pancreas disease in Atlantic salmon in Ireland or Scotland, SAV2 is the causative agent of sleeping disease in rainbow trout, and SAV3 has been detected in Atlantic salmon in Norway. The aim of this paper was to summarise current knowledge of infections caused by salmonid alphavirus and diagnostic methods including the newest techniques, and to briefly describe prevention from SAV infections by vaccination.

Open access

Michał Schulz, Radosław Ścibior, Kamil Badurowicz, Aleksandra Łoś, Milena Bajda, Justyna Tyszczuk, Patrycja Skowronek, Bartłomiej Piotrowski and Aneta J. Strachecka

Abstract

Xylocopa valga, commonly called the carpenter bee and the largest bee with metallicviolet hair cover, is extremely rarely observed in Poland. We hypothesize that a stable and possibly long-term population of X. valga can be maintained in Poland through the creation of suitable nesting conditions. X. valga has been observed since the spring of 2014 in Wisznice (south-eastern Poland). A nesting box made out of 25 wooden blocks with drilled holes was hung about 2.5 meters above the ground. X. valga were interested in the blocks made of willow wood but did not nest in the beech, alder and pine. The carpenter bees chose holes made with drill bits of 10, 15, 20 mm in diameter and a length of 10, 15 and 20 cm. X. valga flying in the same direction most often visited the flora taxa: Aquilegia vulgaris, Ballota nigra, Consolida ajacis, Delphinium consolida, Deutzia scabra, Catalpa spp., Wisteria spp., Robinia ambigua, Stachys spp. and Trifolium pretense. X. valga is a solitary bee, but unlike most other solitary bees it demonstrates aspects of social behavior. It was observed to display cohabitative behavior involving the use of a single hole by more than one female. The females showed aggressive defensive behavior and if approached too closely started buzzing loudly. The information obtained during the long-term observation shows that X. valga can be maintained in partly artificial conditions to increase and stabilize the bee population.