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  • Author: Patrycja Misztal-Okońska x
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The profession of paramedic is a recent profession functioning in Poland since 1992. Over those 27 years the training, the role and responsibilities given to paramedics have undergone many changes. Initially, paramedics were trained in two-year colleges (post-secondary schools) and were not qualified to administer medical emergency treatment (medical rescue procedures) at the place of accidents. At present, they are educated at universities and are qualified to apply emergency medical treatment by themselves, inter alia to ensure the safe transport of the injured person in a life-threatening emergency, provide mental support to the injured, and carry out health education and promotion. Moreover, they are the core personnel of the State Medical Rescue System (PRM).

The goal of the study was to present the history of the establishment of paramedical profession and its current role and responsibilities in the PRM.


Ensuring safety for its citizens is a basic task of each country. In the past this function was limited to providing defence in the armed conflicts, while nowadays modern, highly developed countries are obliged to ensure state of safety and protection to their citizens in each situation. Apart from the natural dangers, which constantly appear depending on the season and climate of a certain area, some changes occurring in the world cause a range of new hazards. They include terrorist attacks, technical failures connected with industry development, as well as new natural dangers appearing as a consequence of climate change caused by significant human interference. Moreover, human actions may be a reason of various catastrophes and accidents occurrence, which require fast and effective reaction of services responsible for the safety of state and citizens. In Poland the system appointed for this purpose is an emergency management system, which functions on the basis of the Act of April 26, 2007 on crisis management.


Introduction. Congenital talipes equinovarus (CTEV), also called clubfoot is the second after congenital dysplasia of the hip (CDH) most frequently occurring congenital limb defect. In Europe the deformity affects 1-2 newborns in 1000 live births.

Aim. The aim of the study was to determine frequency of the deformity among other reasons for hospitalization, as well as depicting the profile of patients treated for clubfoot.

Material and methods. Study method was the analysis of medical documentation from two Orthopaedic Wards of Prof. Antoni Gębala Children’s Hospital of Lublin. Medical records of patients treated for congenital talipes equinovarus (IDC 10-Q66.0) between 2008 and 2013 were the study material.

Results. Results of the study show that in the analyzed period of time 310 children were hospitalized for clubfoot in hospotal. 39.35% (n=122) of the total number of patients were girls and 60.65% (n=188) were boys. The average age of patients was 3.69 years, (Me=1.09 years). Average age of girls was 4.17 (Me=1.35 years) and boys 3.89 (Me=0.83 years). The most numerous group consisted of infants up to 1 year (n=154; 49.68%).

Conclusions. Clubfoot affects boys twice as often as girls. Moreover, in the examined hospital the average length of stay for patients with clubfoot has decreased. The research reveals that the average hospitalization length in children with congenital talipes equinovarus is systematically decreasing. The study shows that the number of patients being admitted to the Children’s Orthopedics Institute of the Hospital is increasing while the number of patients with clubfoot remains on the same level.


Injection is the delivery of medication into the tissues. It is the administration of medication by means of a needle (cannula) into the body tissues, cavities or blood vessels. An injection is one of aseptic procedures, i.e. those that require the use of sterile equipment, sterile medication, and treatment in compliance with the principles of asepsis. Failure to observe these rules as well as those that have to be followed in connection with the delivery of medication regardless of the route of administration may result in many complications. The administration of medications by paramedics is one of their competencies defined in the Regulation of Health Minister of 20 April 2016 on the medical emergency treatment and health services other than medical emergency treatment that can be provided by a paramedic. A paramedic can himself administer 47 drugs specified in the foregoing Regulation, and he can also administer other drugs as ordered by a doctor. The article describes the principles of safe intramuscular injection as one of the methods of administering medication in emergency medicine.


Introduction. Currently in Poland second demographic transition takes place, main features of it being the drop of the birth rate, postponing the decision of starting a family and having children. Moreover, more people decide to live alone and do not have offspring. These processes lead to great change of the demographic structure of the country, for example low birth rate do not allow for the generational replacement. In addition, with extending the life expectancy, we observe society aging. In the future perspective we can expect prolonging drop of the birth rate, and as a consequence, drop in the number of fertile population and growth in the percentage of after fertile age.

Aim. The aim of the paper was to collect opinions of young women on the preferred family model and eliciting reasons that in their opinion determine decision of resigning from having more children.

Material and methods. The method used was diagnosing survey and the technique was authors’ questionnaire. The number of 538 women aged 19 to 42 were questioned.

Results. The majority of the questioned women would prefer to have a family with two children (M-51.91) and three children (M-34.4). At the same time, the majority of the questioned mothers (62.13%) had one child, 31.49% – two children and only 5.10% – had three children. In the opinion of the questioned women, two main reasons for decision about having less children are the unemployment and low salaries. Large percentage of women (every second one) is afraid of the negative attitude of the employer towards maternity leaves.

Conclusions. One of the reason of giving up or postponing decisions about motherhood and having small number of children by those who decide to be mothers in Poland may be concerns about professional and economic situation.


Introduction. Clubfoot is the second most common birth defect of the lower limb. In Europe (including Poland) it concerns about 1-2 in 1000 newborns. What is characteristic for a clubfoot, is change in the foot shape and its impairment with preserving anatomical structures.

Aim. The aim of this work is to gather opinions of orthopedic physicians on the effectiveness of the two methods used to treat congenital clubfoot: the Turco method and the Ponseti method.

Material and methods. The research method used in the work was a diagnostic survey and research technique was the author’s questionnaire designed to gather opinions of orthopedic surgeons on the two methods of clubfoot treatment. The questionnaires were collected in the Orthopaedic Clinics in Lublin and Rzeszów, as well as during the specialization courses for orthopaedic surgeons in Lublin.

Results. The most important advantages of the Ponseti method according to respondents are high clinical effectiveness (average 4.48) and short duration of hospitalization (average 4.31). While the most important disadvantages of the method is length of rehabilitation (average 2.85) and convalescence (average 2.36). Top assets of the Turco method in turn, according to respondents, are high clinical efficiency (average 2.92) and certainty of the patient’s recovery (2.74). In turn, the downsides of the Turco method according to the respondents are high invasiveness (average 4.11) and length of convalescence (average 3.87).

Conclusion. The Ponseti method is the surveyed doctors’ preferred method of congenital clubfoot treatment.


Introduction. Chances for survival of a patient who has suffered from sudden cardiac arrest (SCA) depend on a number of factors. One of the most important however, is the time within which the patient is provided with actions to restore normal heart function. In the Guidelines for Resuscitation 2015, The European Resuscitation Council states that defibrillation done within 3-5 minutes since a patient with SCA lost his/her consciousness can increase the survival rate up to 50-70%. However, such a short time of providing help is only achievable through the implementation of universal defibrillation programs and the automatic external defibrillator (AED) devices densely distributed in public places. By contrast, every minute of delay in defibrillation reduces the probability of survival by approximately 10-12% until the hospital discharge.

Aim. The purpose of the research was to elicit the opinions of adult respondents on first aid and the use of automatic external defibrillator (AED).

Material and methods. The research method used in this paper was a diagnostic survey, the technique was a web-based questionnaire, and a research tool was the authors’ own questionnaire survey. The survey was active between April 8, 2016 and May 20, 2016. During this time, 116 opinions were collected.

Results. As many as 77% of respondents declared that they had attended a first aid course, but 21% of them stated that they no longer remembered the knowledge acquired. The number of 63% of respondents did not know what an automatic external defibrillator is. Only 27% of respondents knew that AEDs are public devices, and only 47% believed that using an AED would not worsen the health of the victim.

Conclusions. The availability of AEDs and knowledge of their use are insufficient. Low social awareness and irrational fear of using an AED (fear of deterioration of the victim’s health) support the need for continuing education in this area.


Introduction. One of the most important issues and challenges of public safety policy in highly developed countries is the problem of ensuring road safety, along with dealing with health and material losses resulted from accidents. Unfortunately, Poland, in comparison to other EU countries, has one of the worst statistics regarding accidents and mortality ratios, therefore it is essential to undertake long-term actions aimed at improving road safety, as well as educating drivers and pedestrians.

Aim. The purpose of this study is to analyse the problem and to investigate whether traffic safety campaigns are effective, and if they reach young audience.

Material and methods. The research was conducted in the first quarter of 2018 among the students of Faculty of Health Sciences of the Medical University of Lublin. The study method applied was a diagnostic survey, and the tool was an original questionnaire. The participation was voluntary and anonymous. The obtained results were the subject of later statistical analysis. As many as 153 young respondents aged between 18 and 25 were tested, out of whom 73.68% were women and 26.32% were men.

Results. Over half of the surveyed (56.3%) declared walking as the main form of participation in traffic, and 25.9% of the surveyed used public transport. The most numerous group of the examined (34.21%) thought that the Polish roads were rather unsafe. As the reasons for the low safety on the Polish roads the respondents identified: bad condition of the roads (69.1%), drivers’ recklessness (67.1%), and maladjustment of the driving style to weather conditions (60.5%). All respondents have encountered campaigns concerning road safety, however not too often (56.58% less than once a month). The surveyed encountered these social campaigns on TV (88.2%), on the Internet (54.6%), and on billboards (23.7%).

Conclusion. Promotional campaigns concerning road safety have a greater impact on women. In the examined group, around 67% of women changed their behaviour as a result of the campaigns, and only 42.5% of men. Social campaign which was best remembered, and had the biggest influence on the respondents (50.3%) was „Say STOP to reckless driver you love”.