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  • Author: Patrycja Gonera x
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Alina Bączkiewicz, Patrycja Gonera and Katarzyna Buczkowska

Abstract

The genus Aneura is represented in Poland by two species - A. pinguis and A. maxima. A. pinguis in contrast to A. maxima is a complex of cryptic species temporarily named A. pinguis species: A, B, C, and E. All species of the A. pinguis complex and A. maxima differ in their geographic distribution and habitat preferences. A. pinguis species A grows mainly on humus over limestone rocks in the Western Carpathians, A. pinguis species B occurs mainly on clay soil in Bieszczady Mts. and in clayish areas of lowlands, A. pinguis species C grows both in lowlands and mountains and it occupies mostly wet sandy soils, on the shores of oligotrophic lakes and river and mountain stream banks, A. pinguis species E is connected with calcareous rocks in flowing water in mountains. A. maxima grows over the country - both in lowlands and mountains, in marshes situated on the river banks.

Open access

Katarzyna Buczkowska, Patrycja Gonera and Bartosz Hornik

Abstract

Within Calypogeia fissa, two subspecies connected with geographic distribution are formally recognized: C. fissa subsp.fissa in Europe and C. fissa subsp.neogea in North America. Isoenzyme studies have shown that the European subspecies is genetically differentiated and composed of three genetically distinct groups PS, PB and G. The PS group has the most distinctive morphological features, but no morphological diagnostic traits have been found for groups PB and G. The sequence characterized amplified region (SCAR) markers developed on the basis of ISSR markers, applied in the study, allowed the delimitation of all groups distinguished in Europe within the C. fissa complex (PS, PB and G). The markers also revealed genetic differences between the European and American subspecies. Five primer pairs (Cal01, Cal03-Cal06) of the six pairs studied are useful as the diagnostic tool for the identification of particular groups from the C.fissa complex. The examined SCAR markers showed that the PS group of C.fissa subsp.fissa was the most distinct; it differed from both groups PB and G as well as from C.fissa subsp.neogea. All plants determined on the basis of diagnostic isozyme loci as the PS group amplified a longer product (380 bp) of the Cal04 primer pair than the rest of studied groups and yielded no amplification products in Cal03, Cal05 and Cal06 primers. The primer pair Cal03 distinguished the plants of the PB group from the remaining groups, since only the PB group generated a PCR product of about 290 bp. The genetic differences between all four studied groups of the C.fissa complex were supported by DNA sequences of the SCAR marker Cal04.

Open access

Katarzyna Buczkowska, Alina Bączkiewicz and Patrycja Gonera

Abstract

Calypogeia azurea, a widespread, subboreal-montane liverwort species, is one of a few representatives of the Calypogeia genus that are characterized by the occurrence of blue oil bodies. The aim of the study was to investigate the genetic variation and population structure of C. azurea originating from different parts of its distribution range (Europe and North America). Plants of C. azurea were compared with C. peruviana, another Calypogeia species with blue oil bodies. In general, 339 gametophytes from 15 populations of C. azurea were examined. Total gene diversity (HT) estimated on the basis of nine isozyme loci of C. azurea at the species level was 0.201. The mean Nei’s genetic distance between European populations was equal to 0.083, whereas the mean genetic distance between populations originating from Europe and North America was 0.413. The analysis of molecular variance (AMOVA) showed that 69% of C. azurea genetic variation was distributed among regions (Europe and North America), 15% - among populations within regions, and 16% - within populations. Our study revealed that C. azurea showed genetic diversity within its geographic distribution. All examined samples classified as C. azurea differed in respect of isozyme patterns from C. peruviana.

Open access

Katarzyna Buczkowska, Patrycja Gonera, Alina Bączkiewicz, Stanisław Rosadziński and Mariola Rabska

Abstract

Nine species of the genus Calypogeia Raddi are currently known from Europe: C. azurea, C. integristipula, C. neesiana,C. suecica, C. muelleriana, C. sphagnicola, C. fissa, C. arguta, and C. azorica. Recently, another species, morphologically resembling C. muelleriana but genetically distinct from it, was detected using isozyme markers. In the present study, relationships between the newly detected species (C. sp. nov.) and typical C. muelleriana were analyzed using the DNA sequencesdata of three regions from the chloroplast genome: introns of trnG and trnL genes and intergenic spacer trnH-psbA. Calypogeia sp. nov. differs from C. muelleriana s. str. (typical form) in all examined chloroplast regions. It differs as well from C. azurea, which was used as a reference species. The number of fixed nucleotide differences between C. muelleriana s. str. and C. sp. nov. is almost the same as between C. muelleriana s. str. and C. azurea. The results of the present study suggest a closer affinity of C. sp. nov. to C. azurea than to C. muelleriana s. str. in Europe, C. muelleriana s. str. was noted in Poland, Germany, Holland, United Kingdom and Azores. Samples determined as C. sp. nov., besides Poland, were so far detected also in North America

Open access

Ewa M. Pawlaczyk, Alina Bączkiewicz, Piotr Wawrzyniak, Magdalena Czołpińska, Patrycja Gonera and Katarzyna Buczkowska-Chmielewska

Abstract

The main aim of this study was to describe the variation between the populations of the dwarf mountain pine Pinus mugo Turra based on the morphological and anatomical traits of their needles, and to investigate the relationship between the observed variation and environmental conditions (altitude and substrate). Two-year-old needles were collected from 180 individuals of six populations of P. mugo growing in the Tatra Mts. Two populations were classified as dense, located at 1360–1450 m altitude, and the remaining four formed loose clusters and were situated at 1500–1650 m altitude. Four of the populations are growing on granite and two on a limestone substrate. The natural variation of 10 morpho-anatomical and 3 synthetic needle traits was measured. In addition to descriptive statistics, the analyses of variance (ANOVA) with a Tukey test and principal component analysis were computed. We also estimated Pearson correlation coefficients for the examined needle traits and altitude as well as substrate. Our results indicate that the P. mugo populations differ significantly with regard to the investigated traits for which the Trzydniowiański Wierch population was the most distinct. The observed pattern of variability is largely caused by differences in stomatal traits and these features are positive correlated with altitude. Additionally, populations growing on granite have larger values for most of the examined traits compared to populations growing on limestone.