In recent years, there has been an increase in the consumption of disposable packaging, which has led to overloading landfills. These problems have become widely noticeable and dominant in a wide range of packaging issues in terms of environmental protection. The development of knowledge in the field of environmental protection, which has taken place in recent years, has shown that the impact of packaging should be considered throughout its life cycle, taking into account many factors that constitute environmental burdens and threats. Many companies operating in the world markets, using the standardized Life Cycle Assessment (LCA) method, conduct tests in terms of technical and material solutions with the lowest environmental impact. Therefore, this publication was to conduct environmental analysis of the life cycle of disposable food packaging based on the method of LCA. The subject of the research were bottles, caps and labels made mainly of polymeric materials: polyethylene terephthalate, polypropylene and LDPE. Eco-indicator 99 was used as the calculation procedure. The impact of the analysis objects on human health, ecosystem quality and resources was assessed. Among the examined objects, the highest level of negative influence on the environment was characteristic for the life cycle of a polyethylene terephthalate (PET) bottle. The use of recycling processes reduce the environmental impact by about 25%.
In the article was presented the results of analysis of the nonconformities which occur during the production of PET bottles in the selected company from Poland. The analysis included six process unit operations of forming PET bottles. The aim of the analysis is to present specific corrective and improvement actions based on the results obtained. The article presents a short description of the process of shaping PET bottles for six selected operations. The block diagram of the PET bottle shaping process is presented. Quality management tools were used for quantitative and qualitative analysis. The use of the Pareto-Lorenz diagram allowed for quantitative an approach to the quality problems of PET bottles. The Ishikawa diagram was used to identify potential causes of the most frequent problem. Corrective actions were proposed to improve the quality of PET bottles tested. The research problem has been solved. As a critical element requiring improvement, the competences of employees and the process of operating machines and devices were indicated.
On average, there are about 60 kg of rubber in a passenger car, about 67% of which are tires, about 20% of all kinds body seals, doors and windows, suspension elements amount to 5%, the rest are other elements related to the engine (seals, hoses, wires, pads, etc.). Rubber waste is too valuable resource to direct to landfills. The vast majority of recovery of used tires in Poland (over 70%) is carried out by burning tires with energy recovery. Tires in the form of granulate, mixed with coal dust, are burn in some combined heat and power plants. The paper presents results of experimental studies of possible use for energy purposes, granules and pyrolysis oil the resulting from discarded car tires for increasing ecological and energy safety. Energy properties of granulates and pyrolysis oil were investigated and the shape and size of granulate particles were analyzed. For this purpose, digital image processing (CAMSIZER device) and calorimeter were used. It was found that the products of tire recycling decommissioned from exploitationare the high-energy material with good calorific value. Based on the results of experimental studies, application conditions of rubber waste for energy purposes was formulated.
The design of a floating, innovative device for river water aeration and conversion of mechanical energy to electrical energy required the analysis of a number of geometrical and dynamic features. Such an analysis may be carried out on the basis of existing methods of numerical fluid mechanics. Models of pressures, forces and torques characteristic for the conversion of watercourse energy were developed for two basic concepts of innovation. These pressures, forces and torques were calculated, designed, and experimentally determined for the variable geometric form and dimensions of the designed working elements of the innovative roller-blade turbine rotor.