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Patrycja Bąk and Aneta Michalak

Abstract

The research problem raised in the paper concerns materials management of mining enterprises. It is an important area of activity in these enterprises, mainly due to the fact that the cost of materials consumption is, after the personnel cost, the second position in the cost structure in terms of value. In order to conduct the mining works planned in an efficient way, it is necessary to provide materials supply as well as to prepare them and transfer to production. It can only be achieved in the way of appropriate planning, which includes the division into product range and time periods. The way of planning should be adjusted to the specific conditions and the character of consumption, as well as link those with an operational production plan. Although a great number of publications on planning methods can be found, not many of them refer to the specificity of mining production processes, especially material requirements planning. The objective of this paper is to present the theoretical assumptions of the material requirements planning process and the practical aspects of this process in the operating activity of mining enterprises. The paper is of theoretical and cognitive study character. The research was based on a systematic review method - systematic literature review, supplemented with the analysis of internal documents and programs used in materials management of mining enterprises.

Open access

Maria Sierpińska and Patrycja Bąk

Abstract

The global economic crisis that started in 2007 in the area of finance, expanded over the subsequent years to the business sphere, and resulted in a drop of demand and production almost in any field of business activity. Access to foreign sources of finance, especially to loans, has become more difficult and expensive. In such circumstances, enterprises have had to resort more often to their own capital generated by the issue of shares, and to retained profit. Banks have limited their loans for business entities, reduced credit periods, and raised credit margins as well as their levels of collaterals. The McKinsey research into the changes that occur in the structures of sources of finance confirms that the share of equity capital in the structure of financing of non-financial enterprises has visibly grown, and their crediting scopes have been limited all over the European Union as well as in the euro zone. The global tendencies as regards directions of changes in the structure of the sources of corporate financing have also been reflected in Poland.

The economic slowdown has resulted in changes in the structures of corporate financing. Mining companies have risen the shares of their equity capital in their general sources of financing. This tendency corresponds to the changes of structure of corporate financing in Poland and Europe. Enterprises have resorted to bank loans to a lesser degree than in times of better market situation. In mining, public companies have increased their crediting, while in private sector the tendency has been reverse. Enterprises tend to use more flexible debiting forms as compared to credits by way of issue of long-term corporate bonds. Mining companies have developed issue programs that are to be implemented over three-year periods. Before, only Katowicki Holding Węglowy [Katowice Mining Holding] had issued bonds.

The present publication is an attempt at assessing the changes in the structure of corporate financing within the mining sector in the circumstances of economic slowdown. The changes have been assessed against the background of changes in the structure of financing of other business entities. Three problems have been identified and subjected to research. The first concerns the increasing share of equity capital in the structure of corporate financing in mining enterprises. The second issue concerns the scope of corporate crediting. And the third issue relates to the time structure of corporate debt. The said issues have been analysed in the conditions of economic slowdown

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Patrycja Bąk and Agata Sierpińska-Sawicz

Abstract

The article presents the effects of cash pooling application in a capital group. Calculations made on a mining company data indicate that the group’s companies achieve benefits on interests. Companies with surplus funds achieve higher interests on deposits. Companies recording cash shortages on current accounts pay lower interests on debit in the current account. Cash pooling provides for optimal use of the group’s funds, harmonisation of procedures in the area of financial cooperation, improves the group’s financial liquidity, and reduces the costs of external financing. One must not forget the effect of cash pooling manifested in high flexibility of financial settlements among the companies within the capital group.

Open access

Maria Sierpińska and Patrycja Bąk

Streszczenie

W artykule zawarte zostały problemy emisji obligacji w Polsce jako źródła finansowania działalności przedsiębiorstw górniczych. Poziom emisji nie jest imponujący ani w relacji do nakładów inwestycyjnych ani do PKB. Kraje wysoko rozwinięte znacznie szerzej korzystają z tej formy długu. Emisja obligacji wykazuje wiele zalet w relacji do pozyskania kapitału z emisji akcji czy z kredytów banków. Koszty pozyskania kapitału z emisji mogą być niższe niż z kredytów bankowych i emisji akcji. Jednak ciągle wiele barier utrudnia pozyskanie kapitału z tej formy długu. Największą barierą wydaje się być niedobór rodzimego kapitału na rynku długu w Polsce.

Poszukując źródeł finansowania inwestycji rozwojowych spółki coraz częściej wykorzystują emisję obligacji korporacyjnych. W krajach wysoko rozwiniętych zakres korzystania z emisji obligacji jest znacznie szerszy niż w Polsce. Wskazują na to zamieszczone w artykule relacje emisji obligacji do PKB, do nakładów inwestycyjnych czy do kredytów. Szeroko z emisji obligacji korzystają duże firmy górnicze ze względu na elastyczność tej formy długu i relatywnie niższe koszty pozyskania kapitału niż z emisji akcji czy z kredytów. W Polsce z emisji obligacji skorzystał dotychczas Katowicki Holding Węglowy. Kolejne spółki węglowe (JSW, Kompania Węglowa) przy­gotowują programy emisji obligacji korporacyjnych, zamierzając pozyskane środki przeznaczyć na inwestycje. Jednak wiele barier utrudnia pozyskanie kapitału z tej formy długu. Największą barierą wydaje się być niedobór rodzimego kapitału na rynku długu w Polsce.