This investigation additionally recognizes partner cooperation issue and furthermore to moderate the real issue through subjective and quantitative appraisal of riverine wetland. Considering a floodplain wetland in rustic West Bengal, the concentration was extended to perceive the type of wetland capacities as per the idea of individuals’ contribution by group examination. Be that as it may, NDVI was connected to ponder the total weeds condition into the wetland to decide the connection between Water Quality Index (WQI) with Normalized Difference Vegatation Index (NDVI) and its impact on valuation. In ANOVA, which is computed by MINITAB programming, centrality level was lower than 0.05 for each case.
We report the morphological and electrical study of a composite of polyvinyl alcohol (PVA) and nanotitanium dioxide (TiO2-50 nm) in conducting polymer polyaniline (PANI). The composite was synthesized using in-situ polymerization technique. The composite was characterized in terms of morphology and electrical properties using scanning electron microscopy and DC electrical conductivity (𝜎dc). We observed that the DC electrical conductivity of the composite film increased with increasing the loading of nanocomposite material from 20 % to 40 % into PVA stabilizer. The DC conductivity results showed that the molecular chain contribution of the nanocomposite material (nano-TiO2+ PANI) was the prominent carrier in the composite film made of the nanocomposite and PVA stabilizer.
This research article discusses the problems having flexible demand, supply and cost in range referred as interval data based transportation problems and these cannot be solved directly using available methods. The uncertainty associated with these types of problems motivates authors to tackle it by converting interval to fuzzy numbers. This confront of conversion has been achieved by proposing a dichotomic fuzzification approach followed by a unique triangular incenter ranking approach to optimize interval data based transportation problems. A comparison with existing methods is made with the help of numerical illustrations. The algorithm proposed is found prompt in terms of the number of iteration involved and problem formation. This method is practical to handle the transportation problems not having a single valued data, but data in form of a range.
The flow of a ferrofluid due to a rotating disk in the presence of a non-uniform magnetic field in the axial direction is studied through mathematical modeling of the problem. Contour and surface plots in the presence of 10 kilo-ampere/meter, 100 kilo-ampere/meter magnetization force are presented here for radial, tangential and axial velocity profiles, and results are also drawn for the magnetic field intensity. These results are compared with the ordinary case where magnetization force is absent.
South-Eastern coastal plains of India experience some of the major delta formations of the Indian subcontinent majorly affected by fluctuations of the Indian summer monsoon (ISM) and sea level. Past shoreline signatures in the form of palaeo beach ridges in Kaveri delta (Tamil Nadu, India), suggest a wave-dominated delta and thus past sea-level variations affecting directly the sedimentary dynamics of the Kaveri river forcing the river to either aggrade or prograde. Chronostratigraphic and foraminiferal study of the 25 m deep sediment core taken 2.5 km onshore from Tamil Nadu coast, Kaveri delta shows evidence of changing coastline over the last 150 ka. Various units in the core reflect eight major phases of increased sea level (~3.4 ka, ~5.0 ka, 9–6 ka, 60–57 ka, 89–81 ka, ~102 ka,~121 ka and 143–140 ka) partly coinciding with the global climate cycles MIS 1, MIS 3, MIS 5, MIS 6 respectively during the late Quaternary period. During ~121 ka and 9–6 ka, direct signature of marine transgression is observed by the presence of foraminifera in the core location. The study also shows that the sea transgression during ~121 ka was much longer-lasting and higher than during 9–6 ka, even though not revealed in the Quaternary sea level curve given by previous authors. Depositional breaks are observed in the core during periods of lower sea levels as the river responded by incision. Total organic matter of the deposition between 9–6 ka was observed as high as 2.5–6% suggesting oxygen stressed conditions during the period.
Introduction. Secondary renal amyloidosis due to tuberculosis is a debilitating disease with considerable mortality and morbidity due to renal failure and other manifestations of both amyloidosis and renal failure. Most patients with amyloidosis have been adequately treated with DOTS (Directly observed treatment, Short Course strategy). The aimof our study was to analyze the epidemiological and demographic profile of patients undergoing renal biopsy and found to have renal amyloidosis secondary to tuberculosis.
Methods. In this study, retrospective renal biopsy data was collected from 2009-2012 and patients with amyloidosis were identified and their clinical and biochemical parameters were analyzed.
Results. Incidence of amyloidosis was 4.66% (n=24/514) among total renal biopsies. Among this, secondary amyloidosis constituted 87.5% of total amyloidosis. The commonest etiology in these patients was pulmonary tuberculosis (73.5%). All patients with tuberculosis had previously received DOTS treatment. 47.5% of patients with amyloidosis had renal impairment and 10.5% developed end-stage renal disease over 12 months and were dialysis dependent.
Conclusions. Amyloidosis due to tuberculosis is a well-established, yet under-diagnosed complication of tuberculosis. The duration and treatment status of tuberculosis does not influence the occurrence of amyloidosis, as most of the patients were treated appropriately with DOTS. There are no predictive factors in patients who will develop secondary amyloidosis. At present there is no specific treatment apart from supportive therapy. The prognosis is poor, as most of these patients inexorably progress towards end-stage renal disease (ESRD) with significant mortality and morbidity. To conclude, at present we are only treating tuberculosis, we are yet to cure tuberculosis.