The paper presents new records for four taxa of Ochrolechia A. Massal. from Bolivia, of which three, O. austroamericana (Räsänen) Räsänen, O. subpallescens f. Verseghy uruguayensis Verseghy and O. upsaliensis (L.) A. Massal., are new for the country. Ochrolechia subpallescens f. uruguayensis is shown to differ chemically from O. subpallescens s.str., but its taxonomic rank needs to be clarified with molecular studies. Ochrolechia africana Vain. is also reported for the first time for Tanzania and Uruguay, and O. austroamericana for Ecuador.
Members of the lichen genus Lecanora Ach. are important but still poorly known components of almost all vegetation types in Bolivia. In this paper, seven species new for Bolivia are presented: Lecanora bicincta Ramond, L. fulvastra Kremp., L. hagenii (Ach.) Ach., L. muralis (Schreb.) Rabenh., L. percrenata H. Magn., L. stramineoalbida Vain. and L. strobilina (Spreng.) Kieff. Their distributions are described and information on their diagnostic characters and chemistry is given
Neotropical mountain forests are characterized by having hyperdiverse and unusual fungi inhabiting lichens. The great majority of these lichenicolous fungi (i.e., detectable by light microscopy) remain undescribed and their phylogenetic relationships are mostly unknown. This study focuses on lichenicolous fungi inhabiting the genus Lobariella (Peltigerales), one of the most important lichen hosts in the Andean cloud forests. Based on molecular and morphological data, three new genera are introduced: Lawreyella gen. nov. (Cordieritidaceae, for Unguiculariopsis lobariella), Neobaryopsis gen. nov. (Cordycipitaceae), and Pseudodidymocyrtis gen. nov. (Didymosphaeriaceae). Nine additional new species are described (Abrothallus subhalei sp. nov., Atronectria lobariellae sp. nov., Corticifraga microspora sp. nov., Epithamnolia rugosopycnidiata sp. nov., Lichenotubeufia cryptica sp. nov., Neobaryopsis andensis sp. nov., Pseudodidymocyrtis lobariellae sp. nov., Rhagadostomella hypolobariella sp. nov., and Xylaria lichenicola sp. nov.). Phylogenetic placements of 13 lichenicolous species are reported here for Abrothallus, Arthonia, Globonectria, Lawreyella, Monodictys, Neobaryopsis, Pseudodidymocyrtis, Sclerococcum, Trichonectria and Xylaria. The name Sclerococcum ricasoliae comb. nov. is reestablished for the neotropical populations formerly named S. lobariellum (Sclerococcales). A key to sexual and asexual states of 40 species of lobariellicolous ascomycetous fungi is provided. Teleomorph-anamorph connections were established for several species using molecular methods and/or visual observations in nature. Additionally, we found that the anamorphic species Cornutispora ophiurospora inhabiting Lobariella was often accompanied by ascomata of Spirographa. Results of phylogenetic analyses, including newly generated sequences of several Cornutispora and Spirographa species inhabiting various host lichens, support the conclusion that Cornutispora is a synonym of Spirographa. Our Maximum Likelihood inference based on multiple loci show that all studied Spirographa (including Cornutispora) belong to a new lineage within Ostropales. Based on these highly supported phylogenetic placements and the distinct character states of their conidiomata, in comparison with other Lecanoromycetes, a new family is proposed – Spirographaceae fam. nov. This new lineage includes broadly distributed mycoparasites, inhabiting various lichen and fungal hosts, and representing an early diversification event preceding the lichen-forming clade of Fissurinaceae, Gomphillaceae and Graphidaceae. Two lichenicolous species, Asteroglobulus giselae and Pleoscutula arsenii, were found to be nested within the Spirographa clade, and their teleomorph-anamorph connections were confirmed based on genotypic and phenotypic data. This phylogenetic result is corroborated by their highly similar ascomata anatomy. Together these results strongly indicate that both species are congeneric with Spirographa. As a result, four new species (S. aggregata sp. nov., S. galligena sp. nov., S. maroneae sp. nov., and S. parmotrematis sp. nov.) and 15 new combinations are proposed (Spirographa ascaridiella comb. nov., S. arsenii comb. nov., S. ciliata comb. nov., S. giselae comb. nov., S. herteliana comb. nov., S. hypotrachynae comb. nov., S. intermedia comb. nov., S. lichenicola comb. nov., S. limaciformis comb. nov., S. ophiurospora comb. nov., S. pittii comb. nov., S. pyramidalis comb. nov., S. triangularis comb. nov., S. tricupulata comb. nov., and S. vermiformis comb. nov.). Species of the genus Spirographa, as outlined here, are strongly host-specific, mainly at the generic level of their host. Some host genera can harbour more than one Spirographa species.
This paper presents new distribution records for 80 lichen taxa from Bolivia, including 14 new national records: Bulbothrix thomasiana Benatti & Marcelli, Dirinaria confluens (Fr.) Awasthi var. coccinea (Lynge) Awasthi, D. melanocarpa (Müll. Arg.) C. W. Dodge, Gyalideopsis lambinonii Vězda, Malmidea sulphureosorediata M. Cáceres, D. A. Mota & Aptroot, Parmelia warmingii Vain., Ramalina aspera Räsänen, R. canaguensis V. Marcano & A. Morales, R. disparata Krog & Swinscow, R. grumosa Kashiw., R. incana Kashiw., R. puiggarii Müll. Arg., R. usnea (L.) Howe and Ramonia valenzueliana (Mont.) Stizenb. Notes on distribution and chemistry are provided for most species.
This paper presents new data on the geographic distribution of 84 lichen species in Bolivia. Bulbothrix chowoensis (Hale) Hale is new to South America. Twenty-five species are new national records: Chaenotheca confusa Tibell, Cora bovei Speg., C. reticulifera Vain., Dictyonema obscuratum Lücking, Spielmann & Marcelli, Gassicurtia ferruginascens (Malme) Marbach & Kalb, Haematomma subinnatum (Malme) Kalb & Staiger, Malmidea badimioides (M. Cáceres & Lücking) M. Cáceres & Kalb, Maronea constans (Nyl.) Hepp, Menegazzia subsimilis (H. Magn.) R. Sant., Myelochroa lindmanii (Lynge) Elix & Hale, Parmotrema commensuratum (Hale) Hale, P. conformatum (Vain.) Hale, P. disparile (Nyl.) Hale, P. machupicchuense Kurok., P. mordenii (Hale) Hale, P. praesorediosum (Nyl.) Hale, P. submarginale (Michx.) DePriest & B. W. Hale, P. viridiflavum (Hale) Hale, P. wainioi (A. L. Sm.) Hale, P. xanthinum (Müll. Arg.) Hale, P. yodae (Kurok.) Hale, Protoparmelia multifera (Nyl.) Kantvilas, Papong & Lumbsch, Ramboldia haematites (Fée) Kalb, Lumbsch & Elix, Solorina spongiosa (Ach.) Anzi and Stigmatochroma metaleptodes (Nyl.) Marbach. Notes on distribution and chemistry are provided.
This paper presents new records of 180 lichen species from Bolivia; 103 are new national records. Three species, Bryonora curvescens (Mudd) Poelt (also from Ecuador), Lepraria elobata Tønsberg and Pyrenula laetior Müll. Arg., are reported for the first time from the Southern Hemisphere, and five, Bathelium aff. sphaericum (C. W. Dodge) R. C. Harris, Lepraria jackii Tønsberg, Psiloparmelia arhizinosa Hale, Szczawinskia tsugae A. Funk and Trinathotrema lumbricoides (Sipman) Sipman & Aptroot, are new to South America. To complement the rather poorly recognized distribution of some species, five of the taxa reported here are also new to Ecuador. Notes on distribution and chemistry are provided for most species, and some, especially those belonging to taxonomically critical groups, are discussed in greater detail.