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Open access

Paweł P. Włodarczyk and Barbara Włodarczyk

Abstract

One of the problems with microbial fuel cells is a low current density of those energy sources. Nonetheless, it is possible to increase the current density by using the catalyst for fuel electrode (anode) - as long as a low cost catalyst can be found. The possibility of wastewater treatment using the Ni-Co alloy as catalyst for MFC’s is presented in this paper. The alloys were obtained with different concentrations of Co (15 and 50% of Co). The increase of current density with Ni-Co catalyst is approximately 0,1 mA/cm2. So, a fundamental possibility wastewater treatment using the Ni-Co alloy as catalyst for microbial fuel cells was presented.

Open access

Barbara Włodarczyk and Paweł P. Włodarczyk

Abstract

Main parameters polluting of technological wastewater (dregs from decantation and thicken of the wort) from yeast industry are: nitrogen, potassium and COD. Such wastewater are utilized mostly on agricultural fields. Unfortunately, these fields can only accept a limited amount of wastes. The basic parameter limiting there the amount of wastewater is nitrogen. When capacity of the production is large sewages are often pretreated at an evaporator station. However, due to the fairly high running costs of the evaporator station currently such a solution is applied only to a small amount of wastes (just to meet legal requirements). Replacement of the earth gas with a biomass being supplied to the evaporator station from the agricultural fields will both allow to maintain the carbon dioxide emission level and enable the production growth. Moreover, the biomass growing on the agricultural fields being fertilized with the wastewater coming from the yeast production allows consequently to utilize the greater volume of wastewater. Theoretically, the possible increase in the yeasts production, with maintaining the carbon dioxide emission level, can reach even 70%. Therefore, the solution presented in this paper combines both intensification of the yeasts production and maintaining the carbon dioxide emission level.

Open access

P. Wlodarczyk, L. Hawelek, P. Zackiewicz, M. Kaminska, A. Chrobak and A. Kolano-Burian

Abstract

The magnetocaloric effect in the MnxFe2−xP1−yGey intermetallic compounds with the amount of Mn in the range of x = 1.05 to 1.17 and amount of Ge in the range of y = 0.19 to 0.22 has been studied. It was found that a higher Ge/P ratio causes an increase in Curie temperature, magnetocaloric effect at low field (up to 1 T), activation energy of structural transition and a decrease in thermal hysteresis, as well as transition enthalpy. Contrary to this observation, higher Mn/Fe ratio causes a decrease in Curie temperature, slight decrease of magnetocaloric effect at low magnetic field, and an increase in thermal hysteresis. Simultaneous increase of both ratios may be very advantageous, as the thermal hysteresis can be lowered and magnetocaloric effect can be enhanced without changing the Curie temperature. Some hints about optimization of the composition for applications at low magnetic fields (0.5 T to 2 T) have been presented.

Open access

A. Walkiewicz, P. Bulak, M. Brzeziñska, T. Włodarczyk and C. Polakowski

Abstract

The kinetic parameters of methane oxidation in three mineral soils were measured under laboratory conditions. Incubationswere preceded by a 24-day preincubationwith 10%vol. of methane. All soils showed potential to the consumption of added methane. None of the soils, however, consumed atmospheric CH4. Methane oxidation followed the Michaelis-Menten kinetics, with relatively low values of parameters for Eutric Cambisol, while high values for Haplic Podzol, and especially for Mollic Gleysol which showed the highest methanotrophic activity and much lower affinity to methane. The high values of parameters for methane oxidation are typical for organic soils and mineral soils from landfill cover. The possibility of the involvement of nitrifying microorganisms, which inhabit the ammonia-fertilized agricultural soils should be verified.

Open access

K. Śmietanka, Z. Minta, R. Włodarczyk, K. Wyrostek, M. Jóźwiak, M. Olszewska, P. Minias, K. Kaczmarek, T. Janiszewski and A. Kleszcz

Avian influenza viruses in wild birds at the Jeziorsko reservoir in Poland in 2008-2010

During a 3-year surveillance study for avian influenza virus (AIV) infections at the Jeziorsko reservoir in central Poland, 549 oropharyngeal or cloacal swabs from 366 birds of 14 species belonging to 3 orders (Anseriformes, Charadriiformes and Gruiformes) were tested. AIV was detected in 14 birds (3.8%): Common Teals (12x), Mallard (1x) and Garganey (1x). Three potentially dangerous H5 AIV were detected in Common Teals (2x) and Garganey (1x) but all of them revealed a low pathogenic pathotype. A unique cleavage site amino acid motif PQREIR*GLF was found in one H5 isolate from a Garganey.