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Open access

B. Leszczyńska-Madej, P. Pałka and M. Richert

Abstract

Polycrystalline aluminium Al99.5 was deformed through the combination of equal-channel angular pressing (ECAP) by B route (4, 8 and 16 passes) and then by the hydrostatic extrusion (HE) using the cumulative way of deformation, just to the achieving the final wire diameter d = 3 mm. The microstructure of samples was investigated by means light microscopy (LM). Additionally the microhardness measurement and the tensile test were performed to determine the level of aluminium hardening. The texture was determined by using the Brucker Advance D8 equipment.

The aim of the research was to determine the influence of severe plastic deformation exerted in the process of equal-channel angular pressing (ECAP) and hydrostatic extrusion (HE) on the microstructure and properties of polycrystalline aluminium Al99.5.

The microstructure observations both after the HE process and the combination of ECAP + HE revealed the elongated to the extrusion direction grains and numerous bands and shear bands. The bands and shear bands most clearly revealed at the perpendicular section. The performed investigations showed that with the increase of the deformation the aluminium level hardening increase. The highest properties of tensile strength - UTS = 218 MPa and microhardness level HV0.1 = 46 were obtained after 8 ECAP + HE.

Open access

I. Sulima, G. Boczkal and P. Palka

Abstract

Microstructure and mechanical properties of the 316L steel composite reinforced with TiB2 phase were examined. The test materials were obtained by SPS technique from powders. From testing of the mechanical properties it follows that the optimum temperature for the fabrication of 316Lsteel-TiB2 composites by SPS is 1100°C. Studies have also proved that the critical content of TiB2 phase in steel matrix should not exceed 6vol%. Above this level, the plastic properties of the composite become unstable and strongly dependent on the time of sintering.

Open access

S. Sobula, A. Kwiecień, E. Olejnik and P. Pałka

Abstract

In this study, low-carbon cast steel was reinforced with TiC by SHS-B method, also known as combustion synthesis during casting method. The composite zone was then subjected to surface remelting by Gas Tungsten Arc Welding (GTAW) method. The remelting operation was realized manually, at 150 A current magnitude. Microstructure, phase composition and hardness of remelted zone were investigated. XRD results reveal that the phases of the composite zone in initial state consist of TiC and Feα. Surface remelting resulted in formation of thick layers containing TiC carbides, Feα and Feγ. Microstructural examination has shown strong refinement of titanium carbides in remelted zone and complete dissolution of primary titanium carbides synthetized during casting. The average diameter of carbides was below 2 μm. The structural changes are induced by fast cooling which affects crystallization rate. The hardness (HV30) of the remelted layer was in the range between 250 HV and 425 HV, and was lower than hardness in initial state.

Open access

M. Suśniak, P. Pałka and J. Karwan-Baczewska

Abstract

AlSi5Cu2/SiC nanocrystalline composite powder was successfully obtained by mechanical alloying of AlSi5Cu2 chips with reinforcement of 0, 10, 15, 20 wt. % of silicon carbide. X-ray powder diffraction was used to characterize obtained material. Detailed analyses using transmission and scanning electron microscopy have been conducted in order to collaborate the grain size measurement determined from the XRD analyses. Powders produced in a planetary ball mill with milling time: 1, 5, 10, 15, 20 and 40 hours, have shown shape and size evaluation during mechanical alloying process. It can be seen tendency to decrease the size of the grain as the milling time is increased. It is also noted that the grains of composites (AlSi5Cu2/SiC) are smaller than samples prepares without SiC addition. 40 hours of milling lead to formed very small grains of Al phase (20 nm in average) in composite powder.

Open access

G. Kwinta, S. Kara, B. Kalandyk, R. Zapała and P. Pałka

Abstract

The exposed selvedge layers in slabs cast by the continuous process should be free from surface defects, which in most cases appear in the form of cracks on the casting surface and run to its interior. In addition to the parameters of the casting process, the occurrence of such defects depends on the chemical composition of cast steel, on the segregation of surface active elements and formation of the precipitates of carbides, nitrides and other phases. Due to the frequent occurrence of defects in corners of the slabs, non-destructive testing was performed on the mechanically cleaned surfaces of slabs. The test material was low-carbon API(American Petroleum Institute API 5L standard) steel micro alloyed with Nb and Ti designed for the production of pipes to handle gas, oil and other liquid and gaseous fuels. Despite the use of different methods of inspection, i.e. ultrasonic, magnetic particle and penetrant, cracks were not traced in the examined material. Then, from the corners of the examined slabs, specimens were cut out for metallographic examinations. The main purpose of these examinations was to disclose the presence of possible cracks and micro cracks on the surfaces transversal and longitudinal to the direction of casting. At the same time, studies were conducted to establish the number and morphology of non-metallic inclusions in selvedge layers of the slab corners and axis. Additionally, hardness of the slabs was measured. The conducted studies revealed only some minor differences in the slab hardness along its axis (130 ÷ 135 HB) and in selvedge layers (120 ÷ 123 HB).

Open access

M.W. Richert, G. Boczkal, A. Hotloś, P. Pałka and M. Karpiński

Abstract

The effect of tribological wear of contacts made from an AgNi10 alloy on microstructure and electrical properties was investigated. The contacts were tested in duty cycles loaded with alternating current of 10A intensity. With this value of the current, intensive arcing of contacts occurred. The contacts were tested in the range of 125 to 500 thousand cycles. The contacting surfaces were reported to suffer a high degree of wear, but electrical resistance of the contact system remained stable.

Open access

H. May, R. Palka, P. Paplicki, S. Szkolny and W.-R. Canders

Modified concept of permanent magnet excited synchronous machines with improved high-speed features

Permanent magnet (PM) excited synchronous machines used in modern drives for electro-mobiles suffer in high speed regions from the limited battery-voltage. The field weakening requires designing machines with reduced power conversion properties or increasing the size of the power converter. A new concept of such a machine features PM excitation, single-tooth winding and an additional circumferential excitation coil fixed on the stator in the axial center of the machine. By the appropriate feeding of this coil, the amplitude of the voltage effective excitation field can be varied from zero to values above those of the conventional PM-machines. The capability of reducing the excitation field to zero is an important safety aspect in case of failing of the feeding convertor.

Open access

A. Woźnicki, D. Leśniak, G. Włoch, P. Pałka, B. Leszczyńska-Madej and A. Wojtyna

Abstract

The influence of cooling rate after homogenization on the 2017A alloy microstructure was analysed. The capability of the θ (Al2Cu) particles, precipitated during various homogenization coolings, for rapid dissolution was estimated. For this purpose, the DSC test was used to determine the effect of the cooling rate after homogenization on the course of melting during a rapid heating. Moreover, the samples after solution heat treatment (with short time annealing) and ageing, were subjected to the microstructure investigations and the microhardness of grains interiors measurements. It was found that cooling after homogenization at 160 °C/h is sufficient for precipitation of fine θ phase particles, which dissolve during the subsequent rapid heating. The cooling at 40 °C/h, causes the precipitation of θ phase in the form of large particles, incapable of further fast dissolution.

Open access

A.M. Ryniewicz, Ł. Bojko, A. Ryniewicz, P. Pałka and W. Ryniewicz

Abstract

Endoprosthesis stem fractures are among the rarest complications that occur after hip joint arthroplasty. The aim of this paper is to evaluate the causes of the fractures of the Aura II stem neck, which is an element of an endoprosthesis implanted in a patient. In order to achieve it, a radiogram was evaluated, the FEM analysis was carried out for the hip joint replaced using the Aura II prosthesis and scanning tests as well as a chemical analysis were performed for the focus of fatigue. The tests performed indicate that the most probable causes leading to the fatigue fracture of the Aura II stem under examination were material defects in the process of casting and forging (forging the material with delamination and the presence of brittle oxides and carbides) that resulted in a significant reduction of strength and resistance to corrosion. In the light of an unprecedented stem neck fracture, this information should be an indication for non-destructive tests of ready-made stems aiming to discover the material and technological defects that may arise in the process of casting and drop forging.