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P. Migas

Abstract

The rheological properties of liquid and semi-solid systems of slag and hot metal in a blast furnace are extremely important from the perspective of their dripping in the unit. The rheological nature and the values of the dynamic viscosity coefficient of liquid and semi-solid phases - slag and hot metal - determine the permeability of the zones in which those systems exist. The modelling of dripping processes and e.g. static and dynamic holding/retention of liquid in the bed, requires an accurate description of the rheological behaviour of slag and iron systems. Determining the liquid flow through the lump bed of the blast furnace is based on the assumption that liquids in the unit in the whole range of their occurrence are similar to a Newtonian ideal liquid. This study presents an analysis of the findings of high-temperature rheometric measurements of CaO-SiO2-Al2O3-MgO systems, liquid, semi-solid slags of the blast furnace type doped with TiO2 and solids in the form of TiN. The tests were performed within a temperature range of 1310-1490°C. Also measurement results for glycerol solutions with concentrations of 86% and 100% at the ambient temperature, simulating blast furnace slags with various contents of solids - PC, anthracite - are presented.

Open access

P. Migas and M. Karbowniczek

Interactions between Liquid Slag and Graphite During the Reduction of Metallic Oxides

High global demand for metallic elements such as Fe, Cr, Ti, Mn leads to an intensive technological development of metal recovery. One of the ways is to recover metals from metallurgical slag. The sessile drop method was adopted in order to study the interactions between liquid slag and graphite. Steelmaking slag was used during this research. The slag used included converter slag and slag from chrome steel melting as well as their mixtures with other modifiers. The analysis covered six types of slag in the temperature ranging from 1100°C to 1600°C in the argon atmosphere. In the course of research mass spectrometry and scanning microscope were used. The following were set for the examined samples during the reduction process: liquidus temperature and the nature of interactions (wettability or its lack). It was observed that the volume of slag samples dynamically changed in the course of the reduction of metallic oxides.

Open access

P. Migas and M. Korolczuk-Hejnak

Abstract

The nature and properties of liquid solutions - metallurgical slags (used in the pig iron and steel production) affect the quality of the final product and processing time. The main object of the study was slag system: CaO-SiO2-MgO-Al2O3, when the content of Al2O3 was raised to ca. 25% in liquid and semi-liquid state.

Measurements were performed using Searle’s method of concentric cylinder systems. Graphite measuring systems were used for testing with two types of bobs: smooth and perforated. Rheological measurements were carried out for five slag systems in the temperature range between 1310-1500°C, shear rate values were changed in the wide range between 1s-1 to 150/180s-1. FactSage application was used to calculate the mass of solid phases precipitating from the slag volume for different chemical compositions at various temperatures. In the temperature range in which the solid phases occurred in the slag the analysed systems show non-Newtonian behaviour.

Open access

M. Korolczuk-Hejnak and P. Migas

Selected Grades of Steel as Rheologically Defined Liquid Bodies

In many processes liquid metal is subjected to dynamic forces, e.g. dynamics of the electric arc, dripping of pig iron in a blast furnace in counter current with reducing gas, in a continuous casting process - dynamic phenomena during flow and crystallization. Values of rheological parameters in these real processes are, so far, very difficult to measure. and thus the influence of the dynamics of these factors: liquid shear rate, time of force action, its value and direction are neglected. In this work the authors analyzed, from the rheological point of view, some selected typical types of steel: 90CrV6, DHQ3, 34CrNiMo, produced in an electric arc furnace. Measurements were taken using a high temperature rheometer FRS1600 in the range of liquid and under-liquid temperatures for changing shear rates and different times of shear stress impact on the liquid system. The measured rheological characteristics allowed us to conclude that the investigated steels show relationships between shear rate and time when the liquid steel was under the influence of the dynamic forces.

Open access

M. Korolczuk-Hejnak and P. Migas

This paper presents the results of the rheological analysis of selected grades of steel: 90CrV6, DHQ3, 34CrNiMo. In metallurgical processes, gradient of the dynamic viscosity parameter is an important indicator characterizing the behavior of liquid metal in the industrial aggregates. It affects the processes of heat exchange and mass transport occurring in the existing liquid, solid and gaseous phases. Only a small number of high temperature viscosity measurements is available. This is due to the fact that the experiments are difficult to conduct and due to the general assumption that the molten steel is a liquid exhibiting similarities to Newtonian liquids body.

In general liquid metal processes are affected by dynamic forces. Values of the parameters which could be treated as rheological in those real processes are very difficult to measure therefore the influence of the following factors: time of shearing, force value, force direction and shear rate are neglected.

The significance of these dynamic parameters seems to be particularly important in the steel continuous casting and thixoforming process. In this work authors analyzed, from the rheological point of view, chosen representative types of steel produced in electric arc furnace. Measurements were taken using a high temperature viscometer FRS1600 in the range of liquidus temperatures as well as above the liquidus for variable shear rates and different time of shearing.

Open access

W. Ślęzak, M. Korolczuk-Hejnak and P. Migas

Abstract

Issues of viscosity and rheological properties of powder moulds are important from the perspective of modelling, along with the control of continuous casting process. Conducted analysis within subject literature indicates that there are many theoretical considerations concerning the effects of viscosity of powder moulds. The objective of this study was to perform rheological measurements of powder moulds, the study contains the results of rheological tests of seven chemical compositions with a carbon content from 5.0 to 10.7% and which were tested with applied shear rates from 10 to 40 s-1, which are similar to those in a real process: the velocity of strand passes/drawing and mould movements.

Open access

P. Migas

Abstract

It is known that the dynamic viscosity coefficient of slag – with an increased titanium compounds content in the reducing conditions of the blast furnace - may rapidly change. The products of the reduction reaction, precipitation and separation of titanium compounds are responsible for the thickening effect of the slag and the problems of permeability of blast furnace, causing anomalies in the dipping zone. The presence of solid components (particles) in the melts determines the rheological character of the entire system. Identifying the rheological character of semi-solid slag systems provides opportunities for the development of mathematical modeling of liquid phase flows in a dripping zone of the blast furnace, allowing e.g to indentify the unstable parts of a metallurgical aggregate.

Author have performed study of synthetic aluminosilicates slag concentration of TiO2 in the range up to 30%, systems were doped solids TiN also, it was made in order to assess the impact of the type forming areas/units of the SRO nature on the rheological identification mentioned systems. The high-temp rheometric measurements were performed at temperatures in the range between 1310-1490°C. The obtained results made it possible to carry out the rheological characteristics of analyzed liquid and semi-solid slag systems.

Open access

A.W. Bydałek, P. Migas, W. Wołczyński and J. Karwan-Baczewska

Abstract

This paper discusses the impact of complex chemical reagents during the process of decopperisation of slag. The beneficial effect of carbide response factors with the participation of nitrogen was indicated as well as the role of stimulators surfactants. Based on the results of the research the basic structure of the slag during decopperisation was systematized. The effects of coagulation of droplets of copper in the slag were shown in this paper.

Open access

A.W. Bydałek, P. Migas, W. Wołczyński, S. Biernat, A. Bydałek, K. Jasińska and P. Kwapisiński

Abstract

The scope of work included the launch of the process of refining slag suspension in a gas oven using a variety of technological additives. After the refining process (in the context of copper recovery), an assessment of the effect of selected reagents at the level of the slag refining suspension (in terms of copper recovery). Method sieve separated from the slag waste fraction of metallic, iron - silicate and powdery waste. Comparison of these photographs macroscopic allowed us to evaluate the most advantageous method of separating metallic fraction from the slag. After applying the sample A (with KF2 + NaCl) we note that in some parts of the slag are still large amounts of metallic fraction. The fraction of slag in a large majority of the elements has the same size of 1 mm, and a larger portion of the slag, the size of which is from 2 to 6 mm. Definitely the best way is to remove the copper by means of the component B (with NaCl) and D (with KF2). However, as a result of removing the copper by means of component C (with CaO) were also obtained a relatively large number of tiny droplets of copper, which was problematic during segregation. In both cases we were able to separate the two fractions in a fast and simple manner.