The particles arrangement in material space is represented by point field determined by the particle reference points, i.e., particle centers which can be described by the pair-correlation function (PCF) g3(r); r - correlation distance. Information about g3(r) can be obtained by stereological method based on the PCF g2(r), which describes the point field on the planar section determined by the centers of particle planar sections. In this paper the arrangement of cementite (Fe3C) particles during coarsening in Fe - 0,67%C steel at 715ºC in a form of two materials (A, B) of different microstructure of the coarse spheroidite (with different matrix grain size and particles position) was investigated. In material A, the particles are mainly at grain (subgrain) boundaries of fine-grained matrix. In material B, particles are mainly inside grains of coarse-grained ferrite. For material A, the empirical PCF g2(r) for a long time of coarsening (600 hours) is shifted towards larger r and is more flat near the g2(r) =1 than the one of coarsening for 50 hours. For material B, the g2(r) for both annealing times are not significantly different. This is consistent with the results of the probability density function f2(d) analysis for diameter (d) of the particle sections. Obtained PCF g2(r) are similar to the PCF g2(r) for planar section of the Stienen model. This means that for both type of microstructures the PCF - g3(r) =1, i.e., particles are distributed randomly in space and the sizes of the neighboring particles are correlated with each other.
P. Matusiewicz and A. Czarski
P. Matusiewicz, W. Ratuszek and A. Zielińska-Lipiec
Recrystallization of Ferrite in Spheroidite of Fe-0.67%C Steel
In this paper the study of ferrite recrystallization in Fe-0.67% C carbon steel with microstructure of the coarse spher-oidite was performed. The purpose of the investigations was to determine the recrystallization mechanism and the sites of recrystallization nucleation.
It has been shown indirectly that in the investigated steel after deformation, ϵ, greater than ϵ = 9%, recrystallization of the matrix (ferrite) proceeds discontinuously and recrystallization nucleates in the deformation zones around large particles.
A. Czarski, T. Skowronek and P. Matusiewicz
A lamellar microstructure is, beside a granular and dispersive one, the most frequently observed microstructure in the case of metal alloys. The most well-known lamellar microstructure is pearlite, a product of a eutectoidal transformation in the Fe-Fe3C system. The lamellar morphology of pearlite - cementite and ferrite lamellae placed interchangeably within one structural unit described as a colony - is dominant. The durability of the lamellar morphology is much diversified: in the microstructure of spheroidizingly annealed samples, one can observe areas in which the cementite is thoroughly spheroidized, next to very well-preserved cementite lamellae or even whole colonies of lamellar pearlite. The mentioned situation is observed even after long annealing times. The causes of such behaviour can vary. The subject of the previous work of the authors was the effect of the orientation between the ferrite and the cementite on the stability of the lamellar morphology. This work constitutes a continuation of the mentioned paper and it concerns the effect of the true interlamellar spacing on the stability of the lamellar morphology of cementite.
B. Mrzygłód, P. Matusiewicz, A. Tchórz and I. Olejarczyk-Wożeńska
Stereological description of dispersed microstructure is not an easy task and remains the subject of continuous research. In its practical aspect, a correct stereological description of this type of structure is essential for the analysis of processes of coagulation and spheroidisation, or for studies of relationships between structure and properties. One of the most frequently used methods for an estimation of the density Nv and size distribution of particles is the Scheil - Schwartz - Saltykov method. In this article, the authors present selected methods for quantitative assessment of ductile iron microstructure, i.e. the Scheil - Schwartz - Saltykov method, which allows a quantitative description of three-dimensional sets of solids using measurements and counts performed on two-dimensional cross-sections of these sets (microsections) and quantitative description of three-dimensional sets of solids by X-ray computed microtomography, which is an interesting alternative for structural studies compared to traditional methods of microstructure imaging since, as a result, the analysis provides a three-dimensional imaging of microstructures examined.
M. Sułowski, A. Jordan, A. Czarski and P. Matusiewicz
The object of the study was to assess the influence of selected production parameters of sintered Fe-Mn-Cr-Mo-C steels i.e. chemical composition, sintering temperature, sintering atmosphere and heat treatment on the following mechanical properties: impact toughness, hardness of the surface, tensile strength, bend strength after static tensile tests.
In the investigations, the general linear model (GLM) of the multivariate analysis of variance ANOVA was used. All assumptions of ANOVA, i.e. randomization of the experiment, the normality of the residuals, equality of variance at different levels have been fulfilled and verified. The predictive strength of the constructed models expressed by the adjusted determination coefficient (R2 adj) is at medium or large level – R2 adj is in the range from 41.46% to 76.97%. This work is focused mainly on the ANOVA methodology. A wide physical interpretation of the results will be possible after the optimization of the ANOVA models used.
P. Matusiewicz, J. Augustyn-Nadzieja, A. Czarski and T. Skowronek
The pearlite spheroidization in Fe-0.76%C high purity steel was investigated. The samples of a coarse pearlite microstructure were isothermal annealed at 700, 680, 660, 640 and 620°C for various times, up to 800 hours. For quantitative description of the spheroidization process stereological parameter, SV (ferrite/cementite interface surface density) was used. The activation energy 104.8±11.4 kJ/mol was found for the spheroidization process. This value shows good agreement with the activation energy for iron and carbon diffusion along a ferrite/cementite interface, so the coupled interface diffusion is the rule-controlling process.