F. Marín, F. Alhama, J. Solano, P.A. Meroño and J.F. Sánchez
The study of everyday phenomena involving friction continues to maintain a high level of difficulty despite its long history. The causes of this problem lie in the different scale of the characteristics of the phenomenon, macroscopic and microscopic. Thus, very different models, valid in a narrow scope which prevents generalization, have been appearing. This survey presents the application of network simulation method to the numerical solution to the study of friction at very different scales. On the one hand, on a microscopic scale an atomic force microscope model has been studied, related to the analysis of soft surfaces at the atomic scale. Furthermore, on a macroscopic scale model related to the analysis of an industrial device, such as a brake mechanism has been studied. After presenting herein is a review of the different formulations of the friction force, the nature of the surfaces involved in the phenomenon, as well as the definition of the problems to be analyzed. The design of network models and the implementation of the initial conditions are explained. The results of the application of network models to selected problems are presented. In order to verify the reliability of the proposed models, their results are compared with the solutions obtained by other numerical methods or experimental results, one from a device developed during the preparation of this report.
There is a direct analogy between the mechanical and electrical phenomena related to vibrations and electromagnetic oscillations in the RLC series AC circuits and an inverse analogy to the electromagnetic oscillations in the RLC parallel alternative current (AC) circuits. Direct analogy RLC series AC circuit refers to the connection between complex velocity and complex electrical intensity, mechanical impedance and electrical impedance, etc. Reverse analogy RLC parallel AC circuits refers to the connection between complex velocity and complex electrical voltage, mechanical impedance and electrical admission, etc.
This work investigated the effects of the food preservatives potassium sorbate and natamycin, combined with different levels of ionic (sodium chloride) and non-ioinic (glycerol) water activity (aw), on growth of fungi involved in cheese spoilage. In general, the combined effect of water stress and presence of preservatives enhanced fungal inhibition. However, some doses of potassium sorbate (0.02%) and natamycin (1, 5 and 10 ppm) were able to stimulate growth of Aspergillus varians, Mucor racemosus, Penicillium chrysogenum and P. roqueforti at aw values in the range of 0.93–0.97. P. solitum was the only species whose growth was consistently reduced by any doses of preservative. The results also showed that sodium chloride and glycerol differentially affected the efficacy of preservatives. This study indicates that aw of cheese is a critical parameter to be considered in the formulation of preservative coatings used against fungal spoilage.
I. Malaescu, C. N. Marin, M. Bunoiu, P. C. Fannin, N. Stefu and L. Iordaconiu
The complex magnetic susceptibility χ(f) = χ′(f) - i χ″(f), of a ferrofluid sample with magnetite particles dispersed in kerosene and stabilized with oleic acid, over the range 0.1 GHz to 6 GHz, was determined. The initial sample has been successively diluted with kerosene (with a dilution rate of 2/3), thus obtaining further three samples. Using the complex magnetic susceptibility measurements of each sample, the frequency field and particle concentration dependencies of the heating rate of the ferrofluid samples, were analyzed. The results show the possibility of using the heating rate of ferrofluid samples with different particle concentrations, in hyperthermia applications.
The emergence of led luminaries in street lighting has modified traditional design guidelines. The highest led energy efficiency allows keeping suitable lighting levels with less installed power. Thus, the present design line of a street lighting installation is closely related to the technological change: kind of led to be used, suitable lens, efficacy relationship regarding high pressure sodium, light colour temperature, spectrum. The “impact” associated to with led conversion relegates main aspects of street designs: effect of road reflective properties and installation depreciation. The wear produced by traffic, as well as the environmental conditions gradually modifies the road reflection matrix. In a street lighting installation, this change alters the luminance arrangement on the road together with the perception conditions. This phenomenon is a determining factor within the global concept of depreciation affecting lighting systems in general and also street lighting installations designed by the Luminance Technique. In the present work changes, due to use, in the shape of street reflection matrices of Argentinean highways are analyzed. The analyzed r-tables were obtained through “in-situ” measurements, with road reflectometer. A first group corresponds to the initial conditions of macro textured roads which were measured in the period 2001/2003. The second studied set contains r-tables of the same type, and according to its use the surfaces can be considered in steady state, assessed between 2005 and 2009. The study provides information about the shape of matrixes and its alteration, specularity and scale factor, relating such parameters with the possible effects on the resulting lighting.