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Open access

J.A. Madej, J.P. Madej, S. Dzimira and M. Nowak

Abstract

Lymphocytic infiltrations located in the extracellular matrix often accompany canine skin cancer. They can be characterised as an inflammatory infiltration and/or a second tumour - lymphoma. The aim of this study was an immunohistochemical analysis of a lymphocytic infiltration which accompanies spontaneous skin cancer. Twenty basal cell carcinoma, 20 non-keratinizing squamous cell carcinoma, 20 keratinizing squamous cell carcinoma and 8 sebaceous gland carcinoma samples which were accompanied by a lymphocytic infiltration and/or secondary lymphatic follicles were verified histopathologically. The expression of bcl-2, CD3, CD79α, Ki-67, MCM-3 and MCM-7 in the lymphocytic infiltration was evaluated. Four types of lymphocytic infiltrations were found: I - diffuse bcl-2+, II - diffuse bcl-2-, III - follicular bcl-2+/- where the centre was bcl-2-, and the marginal zone of the follicles and the extrafollicular area were bcl-2+ and IV - aggregated bcl-2+, where the centre and periphery were bcl-2+. The I and IV type corresponds to lymphoma, II type is non-neoplastic immune response and III type suggest reactive follicular hyperplasia. The proliferation of lymphocytes which demonstrated the expression of neoplastic markers (I and IV), suggests preneoplastic phase (pseudolymphoma) or lymphoma - the second independent tumour. A high proliferative index of the follicular blc-2+/- follicular infiltration indicates an increased immunological response of the host against skin cancer.

Open access

Janusz A. Madej, Jan P. Madej, Piotr Dzięgiel, Bartosz Puła and Marcin Nowak

Abstract

The study aimed to demonstrate the expression of hypoxia-inducible factor (HIF-1α) in soft tissue mesenchymal tumours (fibroma and fibrosarcoma) in dogs. An attempt was made to correlate the obtained results with density of blood vessels (expression of von Willebrand Factor, vWF), expression of Ki-67 proliferation antigen, and with intensity of apoptosis in studied tumours. The study was performed on paraffin sections of 15 fibromas and 40 fibrosarcomas sampled from 55 female dogs aged 6 to 16 years. Immunohistochemical staining against HIF-1α, vWF, and Ki-67 was performed. Apoptosis was detected with the use of TUNEL reaction. A significantly higher HIF-1α expression was noted in fibrosarcomas in comparison to fibromas (P < 0.0001). HIF-1α expression in fibromas manifested strong positive correlation with tumour vascularity (r = 0.67, P = 0.007). Moreover, HIF-1α expression in fibrosarcomas manifested a moderate positive correlation with tumour malignancy grade (r = 0.44, P = 0.004), tumour vascularity (r = 0.52, P < 0.001), Ki-67 antigen expression (r = 0.42; P = 0.007), and TUNELpositive cells (r = 0.37, P = 0.017). Expression of HIF-1α was detected in 86.7% of fibroma type tumours and in 100% of fibrosarcomas. In all studied tumours expression of HIF-1α manifested positive correlation with the density of blood vessels, and in fibrosarcomas it correlated also with malignancy grade, intensity of Ki-67 expression, and with intensity of apoptosis in tumour cells.

Open access

B. Leszczyńska-Madej, P. Pałka and M. Richert

Abstract

Polycrystalline aluminium Al99.5 was deformed through the combination of equal-channel angular pressing (ECAP) by B route (4, 8 and 16 passes) and then by the hydrostatic extrusion (HE) using the cumulative way of deformation, just to the achieving the final wire diameter d = 3 mm. The microstructure of samples was investigated by means light microscopy (LM). Additionally the microhardness measurement and the tensile test were performed to determine the level of aluminium hardening. The texture was determined by using the Brucker Advance D8 equipment.

The aim of the research was to determine the influence of severe plastic deformation exerted in the process of equal-channel angular pressing (ECAP) and hydrostatic extrusion (HE) on the microstructure and properties of polycrystalline aluminium Al99.5.

The microstructure observations both after the HE process and the combination of ECAP + HE revealed the elongated to the extrusion direction grains and numerous bands and shear bands. The bands and shear bands most clearly revealed at the perpendicular section. The performed investigations showed that with the increase of the deformation the aluminium level hardening increase. The highest properties of tensile strength - UTS = 218 MPa and microhardness level HV0.1 = 46 were obtained after 8 ECAP + HE.

Open access

P. Madej and M. Kucharski

Abstract

The aim of the work was to investigate the influence of temperature on the rate of copper removal from the obtained slag from the flash direct-to-blister process by means of a carbon reducer. The slag used in this work was taken from the direct-to-blister Outokumpu flash furnace at the smelter in Głogów, and graphite penetrators were used as the slag reducers. The experiment was carried out at 1573 K, 1623 K and 1673 K. It was found that the rate of the de-coppering process of the “Głogów” slag increased with the increase of temperature.

Open access

J.P. Madej, G. Woźniakowski and A. Gaweł

Abstract

Marek’s disease (MD) outbreaks in poultry flocks may be associated with overriding of vaccine immune protection by very virulent (vvMDV) or very virulent plus (vv+MDV) strains. This paper presents the study on lymphoid organ morphology in the latent phase of MD caused by vv+MDV which break post-vaccinal protection in hens. We also immunohistochemically examined B and T populations as well as B/T and CD4+/CD8+ ratio of lymphocytes in lymphatic organs and, as a background, in MD lymphomas from non-lymphatic organs. The number of antigen expressed cells was evaluated as a percentage of positive cells in the one power field. Organ samples were collected from 24 dead reproductive hens (Ross 308 line) in age between 35-56 weeks, infected with vv+MDV. The hens originated from farms with MD outbreaks, despite earlier routine vaccination with CVI988/Rispens + HVT. The control organ samples originated from 15 clinically healthy hens at the same age and line, subjected to the same vaccination schedule. The number of CD3+, CD8+ and TCRγδ+ cells was significantly lower in MDV infected thymus, spleen and cecal tonsils in comparison to that found in the control organs. The proportion of CD4+ was also distinctly reduced in the thymus and limited in the spleen of MDV infected hens. This study revealed that infection with field vv+MDV isolates might break post-vaccinal protection and influence the central and peripheral immune system. The decrease in CD8+ and TCRγδ+ cell number in the thymus, spleen and cecal tonsils suggests that primarily these cells are involved in cell-mediated cytotoxicity against MDV transformed cells during latency.

Open access

M. Kucharski, P. Madej, M. Wedrychowicz, T. Sak and W. Mróz

Abstract

This study is devoted to tellurium recovery from sodium carbonate slag, formed in the fire refining process of crude silver. The slag was modified by silica additions and then reduced by carbon oxide. The degree of the slag modification was defined by the parameter kw:

where:ni- the mole numbers of silica, sodium carbonate and sodium oxide. The compositions of the investigated slag determined by the parameter kw and the mole fraction of the tellurium oxide (xTeO2 ) are given in the following Table.

The reduction of tellurium was very fast for all the investigated slags, which was manifested by an almost complete conversion of CO into CO2. Unfortunately, at the same time, a side reaction took place, and as a results sodium telluride was formed, which reported to the slag:

(Na2O)slag + Te(g) + CO = (Na2Te)slag + CO2

The tellurium content in the reduced slag decreases as the parameter kw increases, and only the slag with the kw equal unity was suitable for the tellurium recovery in form of dusts, containing more than 76 wt-% tellurium.

Open access

B. Leszczyńska-Madej, M. W. Richert, I. Nejman and P. Zawadzka

Abstract

The present study attempts to apply HE to 99.99% pure copper. The microstructure of the samples was investigated by both light microscopy and scanning transmission electron microscopy (STEM). Additionally, the microhardness was measured, the tensile test was made, and statistical analysis of the grains and subgrains was performed. Based on Kikuchi diffraction patterns, misorientation was determined. The obtained results show that microstructure of copper deformed by hydrostatic extrusion (HE) is rather inhomogeneous. The regions strongly deformed with high dislocation density exist near cells and grains/subgrains free of dislocations. The measurements of the grain size have revealed that the sample with an initial in annealed-state grain size of about 250 μm had this grain size reduced to below 0.35μm when it was deformed by HE to the strain ε=2.91. The microhardness and UTS are stable within the whole investigated range of deformation.

Open access

K. Żaba, P. Kita, M. Nowosielski, M. Kwiatkowski and M. Madej

Abstract

The article presents a properly planned and designed tests of the abrasive wear resistance 2024 aluminum alloy strips under friction conditions involving various lubricants. Test were focused on the selection of the best lubricant for use in industrial environment, especially for sheet metal forming. Three lubricants of the Orlen Oil Company and one used in the sheet metal forming industry, were selected for tests. Tests without the use of lubricant were performed for a comparison. The tester T-05 was used for testing resistance to wear. As the counter samples were used tool steel - NC6 and steel for hot working - WCL, which are typical materials used for tools for pressing. The results are presented in the form of the force friction, abrasion depth, weight loss and coefficient of friction depending on the lubricant used and the type of counter samples. The results allowed for predicting set lubricant-material for tools which can be applied to sheet metal made of aluminum alloy 2024.

Open access

Joanna Skonieczna, Jan P. Madej and Romuald Będziński

Abstract

Introduction: The aim of this research was to provide a detailed description of the morphology, topography, and histometry of rabbit accessory genital glands. Material and Methods: Seven male New Zealand White rabbits, 3–4 months of age and weighing 2.1–3 kg were used for the study. The whole urethra from the urinary bladder to the external urethral orifice accompanied by accessory genital glands was sliced at intervals of 1 mm. The serial sections were prepared with haematoxylin-eosin (H&E) and Movat–Russell modified pentachrome stain. Results: A detailed description of the morphology and morphometry was provided. The topography of the organs was explained on the basis of characteristic cross-sections on histological slides. The inconsistent nomenclature and descriptions of these glands by different authors were also discussed. Conclusion: The morphometric analysis indicated that some of the glands described have similar dimensions in different individuals, while others like paraprostates revealed high diversity in the number of lobes, their size, and their structure. The accessory glands are also good topographic markers which precisely define the segment of the urethra. The terms “proprostate”, “prostate”, and “paraprostates” as the nomenclature of the prostate complex reflect the location of these glands well and indicate their common origin and function.

Open access

A. Woźnicki, D. Leśniak, G. Włoch, P. Pałka, B. Leszczyńska-Madej and A. Wojtyna

Abstract

The influence of cooling rate after homogenization on the 2017A alloy microstructure was analysed. The capability of the θ (Al2Cu) particles, precipitated during various homogenization coolings, for rapid dissolution was estimated. For this purpose, the DSC test was used to determine the effect of the cooling rate after homogenization on the course of melting during a rapid heating. Moreover, the samples after solution heat treatment (with short time annealing) and ageing, were subjected to the microstructure investigations and the microhardness of grains interiors measurements. It was found that cooling after homogenization at 160 °C/h is sufficient for precipitation of fine θ phase particles, which dissolve during the subsequent rapid heating. The cooling at 40 °C/h, causes the precipitation of θ phase in the form of large particles, incapable of further fast dissolution.