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Open access

J. Adamus and P. Lacki

In the paper the results of investigation of sheet-titanium forming with flexible tool are presented. Titanium alloy sheets belong to a group of materials which are very hard to deform at ambient temperature. To improve sheet formability forming technology using a semi-flexible tool was implemented. Experiments were carried out on a specially designed for this purpose device. Due to the application of a rubber pad the stress state similar to triaxial compression was produced in the deformed material. Such a stress state made it possible to obtain higher material deformation without risk of fracture. The numerical simulations were used for analysing the flexible forming process. The ADINA System basing on the Finite Element Method (FEM) was applied.

Open access

P. Lacki, W. Więckowski and P. Wieczorek


FSW (Friction Stir Welding) and RFSSW (Refill Friction Stir Spot Welding) joints have been increasingly used in industrial practice. They successfully replace fusion-welded, riveted or resistance-welded joints. In the last two decades, dynamic development of this method has stimulated investigations of the fast methods for joint diagnostics. These methods should be non-destructive and easy to be used in technological processes. The methods of assessment of joint quality are expected to detect discontinuities in the structures welded using FSW and FSSW methods. Reliable detection of flaws would substantially extend the range of applications of FSW joints across many sectors of industry, including aviation. The investigations carried out in this paper allowed for characterization of defects present in FSW and RFSSW joints. Causes of these defects were also stressed. An overview of the methodologies for assessment of joint quality was presented. Results of assessment of the quality of joints made of 2024T6 aluminium sheet metal using FSW and RFSSW method were presented.

Open access

J. Adamus, P. Lacki and W. Więckowski

Numerical Simulation of the Fine Blanking Process of Sheet Titanium

The present study has been undertaken in order to investigate the new possibilities of improvement in quality of the cut-surface of titanium blanks. For the intended purpose, a number of numerical simulations of the blanking process were carried out.

Fine blanking is one of the most often used methods of finished product manufacturing. Application of blanking with reduced clearance or blanking with material upsetting by V-ring indenter allows for obtaining the high quality cut-surface which does not need further machining. Application of the finite element method (FEM) for numerical simulations allows for effective analysis of the fine blanking processes.

In the paper the results of numerical simulation of fine blanking for a disk made of Grade 2 sheet titanium have been presented. The calculations were carried out using ADINA System v. 8.6 based on FEM. Determination of the effect of clearance between cutting edges, and presence and location of V-ring indenter on the stress and strain distribution in shearing zone was the main goal of the work. The numerical simulations showed the effect of tool geometry on a course of blanking process and consequently on the quality and shape of the cut-surface. Based on the numerical simulation it is only possible to deduce the cut-surface appearance, thus the numerical simulations should be completed with experimental tests.

Open access

P. Lacki, J. Adamus, W. Więckowski and J. Winowiecka


Despite substantial demand for drawn parts made of high-strength sheet metal (including titanium alloys) observed in the modern industry, particularly automotive and aviation, their application remains insignificant. This results from the fact that such sheet metal shows poor plasticity and its cold-forming is almost impossible. Low drawability makes it impossible to obtain even such simple shapes as spherical cups. The authors of this study developed circular sheet-metal blanks with cutouts on their perimeter. The blanks allow for cold forming of spherical cups from Ti6Al4V titanium alloy sheet metal using conventional rigid tools. The cutouts proposed in the study affect plastic strain distribution, which in turn leads to an increase in forming depth by about 30%. The numerical analysis, performed using the PamStamp 2G System software based on finite element method, was verified experimentally.

Open access

J. Adamus, P. Lacki, J. Łyźniak and M. Zawadzki

Analysis of Spring-Back During Forming of the Element Made of AMS 5604 Steel

Spring-back poses a serious problem during the design of the sheet-metal forming processes due to difficulties in obtaining the correct shape and dimensional accuracy of the stamped elements. Forming with blank preheating is one of the methods of prevention against spring-back effect. However, this solution involves cost increase resulting from the additional operation of material heating and necessity of material protection against oxidation.

In the paper forming of an element made of AMS 5604 steel, which is a part of aircraft engine deflector, has been analysed. The work aimed at determination of the spring-back effect arising during two-time forming on deviation of the basic size of the drawn-part from nominal one. Basing on the numerical analyses an optimum yield point for the deformed material, which assures maximum deviation from the basic size lower than 0.1 mm, has been also determined. Change in the yield point value was obtained thanks to heating up of the blank material before forming.

Open access

P. Lacki, J. Adamus, W. Wieckowski and J. Winowiecka

In the paper experimental and numerical results of sheet-metal forming of titanium welded blanks are presented. Commercially pure titanium Grade 2 (Gr 2) and Ti6Al4V titanium alloy (Gr 5) are tested. Forming the spherical cups from the welded Gr 2 || Gr 5 blanks, and uniform Gr 2 and Gr 5 blanks is analysed. Numerical simulations were performed using the PamStamp 2G v2012 program based on the finite element method (FEM). Additionally, drawability tests using the tool consisting of die, hemispherical punch and blank-holder were carried out. Thickness changes and plastic strain distributions in the deformed material are analysed. The obtained results show some difficulties occurring during forming of the welded blanks made of titanium sheets at the same thicknesses but at different grades. It provide important information about the process course and might be useful in design and optimization of the sheet-titanium forming process.

Open access

P. Lacki, Z. Kucharczyk, R.E. Śliwa and T. Gałaczyński

Friction stir welding (FSW) is one of the youngest methods of metal welding. Metals and its alloys are joined in a solid state at temperature lower than melting points of the joined materials. The method is constantly developed and friction stir spot welding (FSSW) is one of its varieties. In the friction stir spot welding process a specially designed tool is brought into rotation and plunged, straight down, in the joined materials. Heat is generated as a result of friction between the tool and materials, and plastic deformation of the joined materials. Softening (plastic zone) of the joined materials occurs. Simultaneously the materials are stirred. After removal of the tool, cooling down the stirred materials create a solid state joint.

Numerical simulation of the process was carried out with the ADINA System based on the finite element method (FEM). The problem was considered as an axisymmetric one. A thermal and plastic material model was assumed for Al 6061-T6. Frictional heat was generated on the contact surfaces between the tool and the joined elements. The model of Coulomb friction, in which the friction coefficient depends on the temperature, was used.

An influence of the tool geometry on heat generation in the welded materials was analysed. The calculations were carried out for different radiuses of the tool stem and for different angles of the abutment. Temperature distributions in the welded materials as a function of the process duration assuming a constant value of rotational tool speed and the speed of tool plunge were determined. Additionally, the effect of the stem radius and its height on the maximum temperature was analysed. The influence of tool geometry parameters on the temperature field and the temperature gradient in the welded materials was shown. It is important regarding the final result of FSSW.

Open access

P. Lacki and A. Derlatka

The dynamic development of the friction stir welding (FSW) technology is the basis for the design of durabe joints inter alia in the aviation industry. This technology has a prospective application, especially for the aluminum alloys. It is suitable for a broad spectrum of permanent joints. The joints obtained by FSW technology are characterized by good mechanical properties. In this paper, the friction stir spot welding joints were analysed. The example of a structure made using this technology were presented. The lap joints made of 2mm Al 6061-T6 sheets were the investigation subject. The different spot welds arrangements were analysed. The tensile test were performed with optical deformation measurement system, which allow to obtain the plastic deformation field on the sample surface. The plastic strain graphs for the characteristic line passing through the maximum deformation were registered and presented. The experimental results were compared to the FEM numerical analysis. The numerical models were built with 3D-solid elements. The boundary conditions, material properties and geometry of the joints were identical as during experimental investigation. The mechanism of deformation of welded joints during tensile test was described and explained. It has been found that the arrangement of the spot welds with respect to the tensile direction has an important influence on the behaviour and deformation of lap joint.

Open access

K. Adamus and P. Lacki


The paper concerns aluminum joints made using friction stir welding. Although in the aerospace industry there is a tendency to replace metal components with composites, aluminum continues to be a valuable material. Its share in the aircraft structures is the biggest among all structural metals. Lots of aluminum components are made of sheets and most of them require joining. Friction stir welding is a relatively new joining technology, particularly with regard to the sheets having a thickness of 1 mm or lower. The paper is dedicated to non-destructive testing of such joints using ultrasonic inspection. It was found that ultrasonic testing allows for distinguishing between joints without material discontinuities, joint with material discontinuities at the advancing side and joint with discontinuities extending through the whole width of the stir zone. During research only horizontally aligned defects were taken into account.

Open access

P. Lacki, K. Adamus, K. Wojsyk, M. Zawadzki and Z. Nitkiewicz

Modeling of Heat Source Based on Parameters of Electron Beam Welding Process

In the paper thermo-mechanical analysis of Inconel 706 tube welding process was presented. Tubes were joined using electron beam welding EBW. Process simulation was performed using finite element method, FEM Key aspect of welding process simulation is definition of heat source. Geometry of heat source and heat input have direct impact on fusion zone, FZ, and heat affected zone, HAZ. The goal of the work was to design EBW that will produce FZ of required depth. The set of process parameters was identified based on work of Ferro for Inconel 706. Modification of the process parameters was required. For this purpose partial least square method, PLS, was used. PLS model was built using results of own work on EBW for 18-8 steel. The model was applied to Inconel data. The results calculated by PLS model were used to build FEM model.