In the present paper the drawing processes of thin wire of biocompatible magnesium alloys in heated die was investigated. Due to the hexagonal close packet structure magnesium alloys have low plasticity. In order to design the technological parameters the FEM model of wire drawing process in heated die and models of yield stress and ductility were developed. The relationship between technological parameters of drawing and fracture parameters was obtained based on developed models. The maps of possible elongation for MgCa0.8 and Ax30 magnesium alloys were developed using simulations. The draft schedule for final wire diameter 0.1 mm was design assisted with FEM model in experimental part of work. Based on this draft plan the drawing process from initial diameter 1.0 mm to final diameter 0.1 mm in heated die was performed in designed by author’s device.
A. Milenin, P. Kustra and D. Byrska-Wójcik
The problem of determination of the cold low diameter wire (diameter less than 0.1mm) drawing process parameters for hardly deformable biocompatible magnesium alloys by using the mathematical mesoscale model is described in the paper. The originality of the considered alloys (MgCa0.8, A×30) is the intergranular fracture mechanism associated with small strains (0.07-0.09). In previous authors works it was proven that the material state directly before appearance of the microcracks is in the optimal state from the point of view of the recovery of the plasticity by annealing. The forecasting of this material state in drawing process requires the development of the model of intergranular fracture initiation and using this model in two cases:
- modeling of the in-situ tests, what allows calibrating and validating of the model;
- modeling of the drawing process, what allows optimizing of the drawing parameters.
A new model of the microcracks initiation in mesoscale using the boundary element method is proposed. The in-situ tests, which allowed observing the microstructure evolution during deformation, are used for the calibration and validation purpose. The model was implemented into self-developed FE software Drawing2d, which is dedicated to the drawing process. The results of mesoscale simulation were verified by the experimental drawing process of 0.07 mm diameter wires according to developed technology. It was shown by analysis of microstructure that the model allows forecasting the microcracks initiation during the wire drawing process.
D. S. Svyetlichnyy, P. Kustra and A. Milenin
The paper deals with a modeling of manufacturing process of thin wire of MgCa08 alloy used as biocompatible soluble threads for medical application. Some difficulties in material deformation subjected with its hexagonal structure can be solved with accurate establishment of the deformation conditions, especially temperature history of the whole process. In drawing process with heated die, wire is preheated in furnace and then deformed. The only narrow temperature range allows for multi-pass drawing without wire breaking. Diameter below 0.1 mm required for the final product makes very important the consideration of microstructure evolution because grain size is comparable with the wire dimensions. For this reason the problem is considered in the micro scale by using the frontal cellular automata (FCA)-based model. The goals of present work are the development and validation of FCA-base model of microstructure evolution of MgCa0.8 magnesium alloy. To reach this objective, plastometric and relaxation tests of MgCA08 alloy were done on physical simulator GLEEBLE 3800. Results of the experimental studies were used for parameters identification of the hardening-softening model of the material. Then, initial microstructure and its evolution during the drawing passes were simulated with FCA-based model. FCA consider dislocation density and flow stress, hardening and softening including recovery and recrystallization, grain refinement and grain rotation, as well as grain growth. It allows one to obtain structures close to real ones. Two variants of the drawing process with different temperature history were considered. The deformation scheme was the same. Simulation results with following short discussion confirm usefulness of FCA-based model for explanation and selection of rational technological condition of thin wire drawing of MgCa08 alloy.
A. Milenin, R. Kuziak, V. Pidvysots'kyy, P. Kustra, Sz. Witek and M. Pietrzyk
Residual stresses in hot-rolled strips are of practical importance when the laser cutting of these strip is applied. The factors influencing the residual stresses include the non uniform distribution of elastic-plastic deformations, phase transformation occurring during cooling and stress relaxation during rolling and cooling. The latter factor, despite its significant effect on the residual stress, is scarcely considered in the scientific literature. The goal of the present study was development of a model of residual stresses in hot-rolled strips based on the elastic-plastic material model, taking into account the stress relaxation.
Residual stresses in hot-rolled strips were evaluated using the FEM model for cooling in the laminar cooling line and in the coil. Relaxation of thermal stresses was considered based on the creep theory. Coefficients of elastic-plastic material model and of the creep model for steels S235 and S355 were obtained from the experiments performed on the Gleeble 3800 simulator for the temperatures 35-1100°C. Experiments composed small tensile deformations of the sample (0.01-0.02) and subsequent shutter speed without removing the load. Model of the thermal deformation during cooling was obtained on the basis of the dilatometric tests at cooling rates of 0.057°C/s to 60°C/s.
Physical simulations of the cooling process were performed to validate the model. Samples were fixed in the simulator Gleeble 3800, then heated to the temperature of 1200°C and cooled to the room temperature at a rate of 1-50°C/s. Changes of stresses were recorded. Good agreement between calculated and experimental values of stresses was observed. However, due to neglecting the effect of stress relaxation the stress at high temperatures was overestimated. Due to the change of their stress sign during the unloading process the resulting residual stresses were underestimated.
Simulation of residual stresses in rolling and cooling were performed on the basis of the developed model. It was shown that the effect of stress relaxation and phase transformations on the distribution of residual stresses in strips is essential and neglecting these factors could lead to an underestimation of residual stresses.