The effect of the initial porosity on the material response under multi-axial stress state for S235JR steel using the Gurson-Tvergaard-Needleman (GTN) material model was examined. Three levels of initial porosity, defined by the void volume fraction f0, were considered: zero porosity for fully dense material without pores, average and maximum porosity according to the metallurgical requirements for S235JR steel. The effect of the initial porosity on the material response was noticed for tensile elements under multi-axial stress state defined by high stress triaxiality σm/σe = 1.345. This effect was especially noticeable at the range of the material failure. In terms of the load-bearing capacity of the elements, the conservative results were obtained when maximum value of f0 = 0.0024 was used for S235JR steel under multi-axial stress state, and this value is recommended to use in the calculations in order to preserve the highest safety level of the structure. In usual engineering calculations, the average porosity defined by f0 = 0.001 may be applied for S235JR.
This paper deals with problems of failure mechanisms of S235JR structural steel. One of the fundamental parameters of the Gurson-Tvergaard-Needleman damage mechanics-based material model is considered in order to describe the behaviour of the material at the plastic range. The analysis was performed on the void volume fraction fF determined at failure of S235JR steel. The case of low initial stress triaxiality η = 1/3 was taken into consideration. Different from the most popular methods such as curve-fitting, the experimental method based on the digital image analysis of the fracture surface of S235JR steel is proposed in order to determine the critical parameter fF.
The paper discusses the influence of the initial parameters on the strength parameters of S235JR steel at low stress triaxiality. The analysis was performed using the Gurson-Tvergaard-Needleman (GTN) material model, which takes into consideration the material structure. The initial material porosity was defined as the void volume fraction f0. The fully dense material without pores was assumed and the typical and maximum values of porosity were considered for S235JR steel in order to analyse the porosity effect. The strength analysis of S235JR steel was performed basing on the force-elongation curves obtained experimentally and during numerical simulations. Taking into consideration the results obtained, the average values of the initial void volume fraction f0 = 0.001 for S235JR steel is recommended to use in a common engineering calculations for elements operating at low stress triaxiality. In order to obtain more conservative results, the maximum values of f0 = 0.0024 may be used.
The R6 procedure is one of the most advanced, innovative and effective method developed and recommended for use in problems of material behaviour and structural integrity of engineering structures with defects. The idea and basic assumptions of R6 procedure are described in the paper as well as example of its practical application in analysis of damaged bridge structural element. As a result of the research, the highly conservative approach of R6 procedure was observed, which estimated the level of hazardous loads as the elastic limit load for analysed element.
This paper deals with results of preliminary analysis to determine the bending strength of approximately 150 year old oak timber obtained from structural elements used in construction. The test procedures were those specified in the PN-EN 408 standard. The experiments involved subjecting specimens to four-point static loading using three different loading rates: 5, 7 and 10 mm/min. The specimens were sampled from full-size timber beams. The experimental data revealed that after such a long period of use the structural oak timber elements had retained high strength. The failure mode and the behaviour of the beams during tests were dependent on the location of wood defects as well as the rate of deflection gain in time.
The article discusses the issues related to concrete shrinkage. The basic information on the phenomenon is presented as well as the factors that determine the contraction are pointed out and the stages of the process are described. The guidance for estimating the shrinkage strain is given according to Eurocode standard PN-EN 1992-1-1:2008. The results of studies of the samples shrinkage strain of concrete C25/30 are presented with a comparative analysis of the results estimated by the guidelines of the standard according to PN-EN 1992-1- 1:2008
This paper presents the results of preliminary tests for estimating the modulus of elasticity of wooden beams from firs reinforced with PBO fiber mesh. The tests were carried out in the Materials Strength Laboratory at the Kielce University of Technology in Kielce, Poland with PN-EN 408: 2004. The wooden elements were subjected to a four-point bending test with the aim of estimating the elastic modulus when bending, assuming the loading velocities of the loading forces of 5 mm / min. The obtained results show a significant increase in the load-bearing capacity of beams reinforced with PBO mesh.
This paper deals with the prevention of failure of structural elements made of reinforced concrete. It discusses preservice cracks in the concrete decks of an underground parking facility. The cracks were assessed by analyzing their morphology. The results were used to determine the crack causes and the mechanisms of their initiation and growth. Some design solutions to prevent or reduce the occurrence of pre-service cracks are also presented.
This paper presents the results of the static work analysis of laminated veneer lumber (LVL) beams strengthened with carbon fabric sheets (CFRP). Tested specimens were 45mm wide, 100 mm high, and 1700 mm long. Two types of strengthening arrangements were assumed as follows: 1. One layer of sheet bonded to the bottom face; 2. U-shape half-wrapped reinforcement; both sides wrapped to half of the height of the cross-section. The reinforcement ratios were 0.22% and 0.72%, respectively. In both cases, the FRP reinforcement was bonded along the entire span of the element by means of epoxy resin. The reinforcement of the elements resulted in an increase in the bending strength by 30% and 35%, respectively, as well as an increase in the global modulus of elasticity in bending greater than 20% for both configurations (in comparison to the reference elements).