The anticoagulant rodenticides are the most commonly used toxicants to control rodents nowadays. Therefore, developing resistance to them is an issue of great importance for pest control. The aim of this study was to investigate the sensitivity of synanthropic rodents in the Stara Zagora region, Bulgaria to some of the most significant first (warfarin and coumatetralyl) and second (bromadiolone and brodifacoum) generation anticoagulants. Resistance tests were carried out by a standard protocol using lethal feeding period tests and blood clotting response tests according to the European and Mediterranean Plant Protection Organization (Paris, France) standard. Studies were performed on 278 wild synanthropic rodents – 67 house mice (Mus musculus), 153 roof rats (Rattus rattus) and 58 brown rats (Rattus norvegicus). The rodents belonged to 11 populations inhabiting 9 animal farms in the region of Stara Zagora, Southern Bulgaria. High-level resistance to warfarinwas established in 100% of surveyed house mice and 92.1% of roof rats. Resistance to coumatetralyl was registered in 62.5% of the tested roof rats. Low-level resistance to bromadiolone was found in 38.5% of the surveyed roof rats and 23.1% of house mice. There was no resistance registered in brown rats. The sensitivity of all three rodent species to the strategic anticoagulant brodifacoum was high, and there were no signs of resistance. The results proved the resistance among synanthropic rodents and led to the conclusion that the resistance in house mice and roof rats to warfarin and coumatetralyl tends to be the main issue in pest control.
It is well known that nitrated petroleum products are effectivelyused as anticorrosion additives in various types of fuelsand lubricants. Due to processes of nitration and oxidation,the products obtained by us possess anodic and shielding propertiesof corrosion inhibitors for both ferrous and non-ferrousmetals. Their protective ability is enhanced as a result of intramolecularinteractions. Their particular implementations indifferent petroleum products are related both to the molecularweight and the group hydrocarbon composition of the raw material.The addition of the compounds obtained, which containamine and amide group, the cathode properties of the inhibitorsare also improved. The concentration limits at which theanodic, shielding and cathodic inhibitors to obtain maximalprotective effect were determined. A technique for productionof conservation and work-conservation oils containing thiscomplex corrosion inhibitor was developed.
Total mesorectal excision (TME) is a standard surgical procedure for rectal cancer. Robotic surgery has the potential to minimize the disadvantages of laparoscopic rectal resection. Circumferential margin and macroscopic quality assessment of the resected specimen are the major prognostic factors for local recurrence of the disease. The aim of this study was to research the macroscopic assessment of the quality of TME after robotic-assisted rectal resections for rectal cancer performed in a single center. Data was prospectively collected about macroscopic assessment of the quality of TME in thirteen patients after robotic-assisted rectal resections for rectal cancer between 09.04.2014 and 31.12.2016. After all robotic TMEs, a pathologist made macroscopic assessment of the completeness of the mesorectal excision. The quality of TME was complete in 12 cases and nearly complete in one case. The circumferential and distal resection margins were negative in all cases. The mean number of harvested lymph nodes was nine. This study indicated that using robotic surgery for rectal cancer does not lead to worsening the quality of TME. Further studies in this field are necessary.
Preeclampsia (PE) is characterized by hypertension and proteinuria after the 20th gestational week (GW). It is a significant cause of maternal and fetal perinatal morbidity and mortality during pregnancy. There is increasing evidence suggesting that PE is due to an impaired balance between maternal placental angiogenic and antiangiogenic factors that harm maternal vascular endothelium. The study aimed to assess the clinical and financial aspects of introducing into practice the soluble fms-like tyrosine kinase (sFlt-1) to placental growth factor (PlGF) ratio test to improve the management of preeclampsia and adverse pregnancy outcome, intrauterine growth retardation, iatrogenic prematurity, and placental abruption.
We report a case study in which we used the sFlt-1/PlGF ratio in the management of a high-risk pregnancy. Unnecessary hospitalization was avoided, and the patient was managed appropriately.
INTRODUCTION: Arterial hypertension is the most common chronic cardiovascular disease affecting about 25% of the adult population. Meta-analyses have demonstrated a linear relationship between blood pressure and the risk of cardiovascular events. Resistant hypertension defined as failure to reach blood pressure targets despite treatment with three antihypertensive drugs including a diuretic represents a serious clinical problem. It has been estimated that it affects between 8.9% and 12.8% of all treated hypertensive subjects. In resistant hypertension the optimal blood pressure is illusive despite very well tailored therapy.
OBJECTIVE: Management of resistant hypertension is exactly the fi eld where blood pressurecontrolling non-pharmacological methods fi t best. The present article aims at throwing light on these methods’ principles of action, on who the target patient groups are and the respective results. Two methods are especially reviewed here: the carotid barorefl ex stimulation and the transcatheter renal sympathetic denervation. Current results from the use of renal denervation suggest stable effi ciency of the method, the results becoming signifi cant 6 months after the procedure is applied and sustained for two years in the follow-up. As much as 90% of the treated patients respond to the procedure. The transcatheter renal denervation is associated with only 2.61% of procedural complications. The barorefl ex carotid stimulation, too, is known to produce a stable effect on blood pressure: the effect become obvious at 12 months in 88% of the treated subjects. The neurologic complications associated with the procedure are reported to occur in 4.4% of cases.
CONCLUSION: The present review article clearly demonstrates that non-pharmacological methods for treatment of resistant hypertension show great promise despite some open questions concerning their long term effects and procedural safety.
Psoriasis isachronic autoimmune multisystem disease, mainly affecting the skin and joints. Its origin is related to both environmental and genetic factors. The condition affects 1-3%of the population worldwide. Psoriasis is also associated with cardiovascular risk factors, atherothrombotic events, and markers of hypercoagulation (platelet activation and hyperhomocysteinemia). Venous thromboembolism (VTE) isawidespread severe disease. Both VTEand psoriasis are connected with risk factors for cardiovascular disorders (obesity and hypertension). The incidence of VTEevents in patients with psoriasis is higher. Patients with psoriasis should be checked for risk factors (metabolic disorders and cardiovascular diseases).We reportacase of a 53-year old man, diagnosed with plaque psoriasis 20 years ago, andafive year history of hypertension. In 2006, he hadastroke, and in 2011 ‒aheart attack. In 2013 he was diagnosed with thrombophlebitis. The patient was recently diagnosed with Type IIdiabetes, dyslipidemia and metabolic syndrome. The DNAanalysis revealed that the patient wasahomozygous carrier of 4G/4G (rs1799889) polymorphism in plasminogen activator inhibitor 1 (PAI-1) -a risk factor for thrombophilia. This case is important because of the major comorbidities, more particularly thrombotic events in combination withaprothrombotic mutation.
Colorectal cancer in pregnant women is rare and represents a diagnostic and therapeutic challenge for clinicians. We present a case of a 38-year-old pregnant woman, diagnosed with colorectal cancer and liver metastases during the 29th week of gestation. After clinical evaluation and making the diagnosis, the patient underwent an emergency cesarean section (C-section) and bypass anastomosis between the transverse colon and sigmoid colon. The babies were born healthy without any complications. After recovery, the mother started treatment with chemotherapy, but two months later she died due to the spread of the disease. Cancer during pregnancy is always a challenge for diagnosis and treatment.
We present here the first five human cases with tularemia from two regions in South Bulgaria in which there had been no previous report of the infection. The cases occurred over a period of 8 months (December 2014 - August 2015). They were treated at the Department of Infectious Diseases in Stara Zagora University Hospital, Bulgaria. We present the clinical, epidemiological and laboratory data for four men and one woman (age range 52 to 73 years). Three men were hunters, four patients took part in handling, preparing/skinning and cooking the game animals. One man marked agricultural work and contact with straw stems. After a mean incubation period of 4.8±1.4 days ulcers appeared, followed by local painful lymphadenitis. All patients presented with liver enlargement and elevation in acute phase reactants. The etiological diagnosis was made by tube agglutination test in all cases, PCR positive result was found in one. The administered antibacterial treatment was a combination of aminoglycosides and 4-quinolones with the outcome being favorable for all patients. The current report suggests presence of Francisella tularensis in South Bulgaria.
BEN is a primary, chronic tubulointerstitial nephritis characterized with chronic anemia, absence of edema, xantoderma, normal blood pressure and normal findings on the fundus oculi. The disease is distributed in restricted areas in Bulgaria, Romania, Croatia, Bosnia, Former Yugoslavia. Despite numerous studies on genetic and environmental factors and their possible involvement in BEN, its etiopathogenesis still remains elusive.
Our recent study aim to elucidate the possible epigenetic component in BEN development. Whole genome DNA array methylation analysis was applied to compare the methylation profiles of male and female BEN patients from endemic regions in Bulgaria and Serbia and healthy controls.
All three most prominent candidate genes with aberrations in the epigenetic profile discovered with this study are involved in the inflammatory/immune processes and oncogenesis. These data are in concordance with the reported pathological alterations in BEN. This research supports the role of epigenetic changes in BEN pathology.
Exome sequencing of 22.000 genes with Illumina Nextera Exome Enrichment Kit revealed three mutant genes (CELA1, HSPG2, and KCNK5) in BEN patients which encode proteins involved in basement membrane/extracellular matrix and vascular tone, tightly connected to process of angiogenesis. We suggest that an abnormal process of angiogenesis plays a key role in the molecular pathogenesis of BEN.
In the last 15 years, sentinel lymph node biopsy (SLNB) for patients with malignant melanoma (MM) has been introduced into the clinical practice. Our aim was to make a retrospective analysis of clinical results in order to assess the success ratio of SLNB and the variables affecting it in MM patients, treated in the Oncology Center at the University Hospital “Dr George Stranski” - Pleven, Bulgaria for a 4-year period. A research index card was used to process the oncologic files of 82 out of 102 patients with MM, treated and monitored at the Oncology centre between 01.01.2008 and 31.12.2011. TNM-stages, Breslow and Clark levels, location, characteristics of the skin lesion, diagnostic excision, type of lymph node dissection, number of SLN, localization of SLN, etc. were registered in the index card. SLNB staging was carried out in 28 patients. Sentinel lymph nodes were found in 22 of them. The success ratio of the method was 78.6%. Histologically, metastatic SLN were found in 4 cases. The Patent Blue Dye method was used in 22 of the cases (78%). A combined radiocolloid and dye method was used in 5 cases (18%). A radiocolloid method was used in 1 case (4%) only. Our research showed that more therapeutic lymph node dissections were performed in cases of locally advanced MM, which in turn worsened the clinical results. According to our research, the SLNB success ratio depends on the precision of diagnostic excision (p=0.019), lesion location (p=0.015), Clark level (p=0.0229), mapping method (p=0.08) and the type of melanoma (p=0.088).