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Effect of nitrogen fertilization and genotype on the yield and yield components of winter wheat

Einfluss von Stickstoffdüngung und Sorte auf den Ertrag und die Ertragskomponenten von Winterweizen

Eszter Sugár, Zoltán Berzsenyi, Tamás Árendás and Péter Bónis

Summary

The effect of N fertilization on the yield, yield components, harvest index (HI), and chlorophyll content (SPAD (soil plant analysis development) index) of winter wheat cultivars was investigated in a long-term experiment in Hungary between 2006/2007 and 2008/2009. Maximal grain yield was reached at 80 and 160 kg · ha–1 N treatments, the higher N rate did not lead to a further yield increase in any of the years. A substantial year effect was observed for the yield and yield components. A negative correlation was found between grain number and thousand-kernel weight (TKW). Mv Verbunkos gave among the varieties the highest grain yield, grain number per spike, and SPAD value. There was a significant (P<0.001) positive correlation between the yield and the number of grains per square meter (r=0.85) and between the yield and the SPAD index (r=0.59). A significant (P<0.01) negative correlation was detected between the yield and the TKW (r=–0.44) and a positive correlation between the yield and the HI (r=0.51). Regression analysis revealed a significant linear relationship between the yield and the yield components (number of grains per square meter and TKW) at the various N levels.

Open access

Eszter Sugár, Zoltán Berzsenyi, Péter Bónis and Tamás Árendás

Summary

Growth analysis helps explain the differences in yield and growth potential between cultivars in response to management practices and environmental conditions. The aim of the research was: (i) to investigate the effect of nitrogen fertilization on the growth and growth parameters of different wheat (Triticum aestivum L.) cultivars and (ii) to study the relationship between yield and growth parameters at the individual plant and plant stand level. In the two-factorial, split-plot experiment, the main plot was the nitrogen (N) treatment and the sub-plot was the cultivar. In response to N fertilization, the values of growth rate parameters increased up to the N160 treatment. The mean values of crop growth rate (g m-2 day-1) in the treatments were as follows: N0: 10.4, N80: 15.4, N160: 17.2 and N240: 16.3. The leaf area index, leaf area duration and especially the duration of the flag-leaf gave a good reflection of the effect of N fertilization. Multiple regression analysis demonstrated the significant effect of growth rates, size and duration of leaf area, biomass distribution and yield components on the yield. The results showed that understanding the growth of plants is important for optimizing management decisions.