Traumatic Brain Injury (TBI) is one of the leading causes of death among critically ill patients from the Intensive Care Units (ICU). After primary traumatic injuries, secondary complications occur, which are responsible for the progressive degradation of the clinical status in this type of patients. These include severe inflammation, biochemical and physiological imbalances and disruption of the cellular functionality. The redox cellular potential is determined by the oxidant/antioxidant ratio. Redox potential is disturbed in case of TBI leading to oxidative stress (OS). A series of agression factors that accumulate after primary traumatic injuries lead to secondary lesions represented by brain ischemia and hypoxia, inflammatory and metabolic factors, coagulopathy, microvascular damage, neurotransmitter accumulation, blood-brain barrier disruption, excitotoxic damage, blood-spinal cord barrier damage, and mitochondrial dysfunctions. A cascade of pathophysiological events lead to accelerated production of free radicals (FR) that further sustain the OS. To minimize the OS and restore normal oxidant/antioxidant ratio, a series of antioxidant substances is recommended to be administrated (vitamin C, vitamin E, resveratrol, N-acetylcysteine). In this paper we present the biochemical and pathophysiological mechanism of action of FR in patients with TBI and the antioxidant therapy available.
Drowning in freshwater kills many people around the world. Complications are multiple and sometimes impossible to treat. Fluid and electrolyte resuscitation is difficult because of all the physiological, biophysical and biochemical changes that decrease the rate of survival. Extreme lung injury and cardiovascular disorders are responsible for tissue hypoxia, increased production of inflammation markers, biosynthesis of reactive oxygen species and finally, multiple organ damage. Hypothermia, frequently associated with drowning, provides multiple benefits to this type of patients. Various studies have developed the idea that hypothermia protects the brain from biochemical mediators, thereby preventing neuronal cell destruction. In this case report we present the biological parameters and evolution of a patient drowned in freshwater, and also the benefits of hypothermia to the clinical picture.
Hemofiltration National Registry is one of the patient registries implemented lately in Romania, currently in use, in response to increased clinical and research needs. The registries of patients with extracorporeal support of vital functions were developed with the support of Romanian Society of Anesthesia and Intensive Care. The registry contains data on over 200 hemofiltration procedures that were per formed in the last 3 years in multiple Romanian hospitals. A sample of data containing records of 2018 was analyzed by K-means clustering, revealing patterns that are potentially useful for healthcare improvement. Among the 6 clusters identified, 3 contain patients with a high mortality rate (90-100%), 1 is defined by intermediate mortality (72%) and 2 by a lower mortality rate (62%). Further research is needed in order to refine the clustering criteria, by using a larger number of cases and potentially examining more outcomes.
The emergence of multi-drug resistant Acinetobacter spp involved in hospital-acquired infections, once considered an easily treatable pathogen, is troublesome and an immense burden for the modern medical systems worldwide. In the last 20 years the medical community recorded an increase in the incidence and severity of these infections as therapeutic means tend to be less and less effective on these strains. The ability of these bacteria to rapidly develop resistance to antimicrobial agents by continuously changing and adapting their mechanisms, their ability to survive for long periods of time in the hospital environment and the multitude of transmission possibilities raises serious issues regarding the management of these complex infections. The future lies in developing new and targeted methods for the early diagnosis of A. baumannii, as well as in the judicious use of antimicrobial drugs. This review details the evolution of the pathogenicity of this microorganism, together with the changes that appeared in resistance mechanisms and the advancements in molecular testing for the early detection of infection.
Cardiovascular disease is a leading cause of death globally. At present, there are many ways to diagnose this pathophysiology. The greatest disadvantages related to current biomarkers are their low specificity, low selectivity and low accuracy. A new method, extensively studied recently, is the expression of miRNAs, used as genetic biomarkers for the early diagnosis of cardiovascular diseases. This paper presents an update of miRNAs species expression that can serve as early diagnostic biomarkers and for the continuous monitoring of patients with cardiovascular disease.
Background: Numerous studies discuss the protective effects of halogenated anesthetics on myocyte injury induced by the ischemia-reperfusion syndrome of the heart. This mechanism is known as pharmacological preconditioning.
Aim of the study: The objective of this study was to identify the effects of two volatile anesthetics frequently used in current clinical practice, Isoflurane and Sevoflurane, on the in situ heart. The study was performed on laboratory animals with induced brain death.
Material and methods: The animals were divided into 3 groups, the control group (n = 8), IZO-PRE group (n = 8) and SEVO-PRE group (n = 8), on which the experimental protocol established for this study was applied. From a molecular point of view, the expressions of protein kinase C-epsilon (PKCε) and of glycogen synthase kinase – 3 beta (GSK-3β) were investigated.
Results: Following the statistical analysis, we observed a significant reduction in the size of the infarcted area in the IZO-PRE group compared to the control group (p <0.0001). Regarding the SEVO-PRE group, no reduction was observed (p >0.05). The expression of GSK-3β is more pronounced in case of the SEVO-PRE group, at 5 minutes after reperfusion, and the effect disappears after 15 minutes. The expression of PKCε as a total form of the enzyme, occurs at 5 minutes after reperfusion in the SEVO-PRE group and late in the IZO-PRE group (after 15 minutes).
Conclusions: Both anesthetics that were applied showed a cardioprotective effect. Isoflurane provided a better structural and morphological protection, but Sevoflurane resulted in a more effective protection in terms of functionality, significantly reducing the incidence of extremely severe life-threatening arrhythmias.
A patient with multiple traumas is usually found in severe haemorrhagic shock. In 40% of the cases, the patient with multiple traumas and haemorrhagic shock cannot recover due to secondary injuries and complications associated with the shock. In this paper we present the case of a male patient 30 years old, who suffered a car accident. The patient is admitted in our hospital with haemorrhagic shock due to femur fracture, acute cranial-cerebral trauma and severe thoracic trauma with bleeding scalp wound, associated with lethal triad of trauma. The clinical and biological parameters demand massive transfusion with packed red blood cells (PRBCs), fresh frozen plasma (FFP), cryoprecipitate (CRY) and colloidal solution (CO) sustained with vassopresor for the haemodynamic stabilisation. During his stay in the ICU, the patient benefits from anti-oxidative therapy with Vitamin C, Vitamin E and Vitamin B1. After 14 days the clinical state of the patient improves and he is transferred in Polytrauma Department.