The main objective of the European Union (EU) is to reduce certain contaminants in foodstuffs to acceptable levels. The occurrence of aflatoxin B1 in food was considered to be one of the most important issues of global food security to protect the health of humans and animals, over 100 nations have established maximum tolerable levels for aflatoxin in food. Although EU legislation covers many aspects of food safety was not legally establish an integrated framework that could effectively combat and cover all sectors of the food chain. Monitoring and reporting levels of aflatoxins after controls are essential actions that assist to identify potential risks to human health. The review process for aflatoxin regulations is a complex activity involving many factors and stakeholders.
Among all mycotoxins, Aflatoxin B1 (AFB1) is considered to be the most carcinogenic, and it has been classified by the International Agency for Research on Cancer in Group 1 of human carcinogen. It signifies a high hazard because it contaminates a diversity of agricultural products such as nuts and derivatives, peanuts/hazelnuts, grains, seeds, cottonseed, milk, dairy food. In milk AFB1 is metabolized to aflatoxin M (AFM1) which is 4-hydroxy derivative of AFB1, it is formed in the liver and excreted in the milk into the mammary glands of both human and lactating animals which have been fed with AFB1 contaminated diet. After the food contamination, one part of the aflatoxin B1 which was present in the food is eliminated through the milk. At the molecular level aflatoxin biosynthesis involves several levels of transcriptional and post-transcriptional control, so the main stages subsequent biochemical and genetic constituents of aflatoxin biosynthesis have been demonstrated recently. Recent studies over the last few decades have shown that the metabolism of AFB is an essential component of hepatocarcinogenic, however it was shown that AFB1 is metabolized by cytochrome P450 oxidised to intermediates and other metabolites Therefore, the biotransformation process may also lead to the formation of carcinogenic metabolites.
Otto Ketney, Ecaterina Lengyel, Ovidiu Tita and Anca Țifrea
Wine grapes are brought to the center in baskets, plastic containers, wooden bene, or more modern like metal bene. From picking and transport can be transmitted to grapes, the iron or copper from all equipment on metal and after will be transmitted also to wines produced. It must therefore control of how was made the insulation of protective metal bene to avoid contact the metal with grapes. The aim of this work involves evaluating the content of iron and copper in wines and vineyards of Recas. The results indicated that the values determined by methods Photocolorimeters were within normal limits and revealed that the level of iron and copper in samples analyzed were not influenced by the process or storage conditions.
Anca Tifrea, Ovidiu Tiţa, Endre Máthé and Otto Ketney
Probiotic dairy products are part of functional foods, which are made from fermented milk selected from a culture or a concentrate of bacteria that improve the microbial balance in the gut. These products have positive and beneficial influence on health and integrity of the human body. In the present study regarding the fortification with oil and pulp of sea buckthorn, was to obtained product similar to the conventional yoghurt, consistency and texture aimed at reducing heat treatments and stages technology in order to preserve nutritional quality. This research focused on optimizing the technology for obtaining yoghurt and selecting the best options regarding the addition of sea buckthorn pulp or oil, based on the following parameters : acidity, pH and lactic acid. At the same time we aimed to obtain probiotic yoghurt ,to make comparative studies on major parameters and to select the optimal probiotic yoghurt with sea bucktorn that give a good stabilization.