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  • Author: Osman Yılmaz x
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This study determined the presence of nitric oxide synthesis isoforms (nNOS, iNOS, and eNOS) in thoracic spinal cord segments and nodose ganglia of rats with gamma-irradiated livers.

Material and Methods

Male rats (n = 32) were divided into equal groups A, B, C, and D. In group A, the controls, no radiation was applied, while groups B, C, and D received 10 Gy of ionising gamma radiation. The rats of group B were euthanized at the end of the first day (d1), those of group C on the second day (d2), and those of group D on the third day (d3). The liver, spinal cord segments, and nodose ganglion tissues were dissected and fixed, and the liver sections were examined histopathologically. The other tissues were observed through a light microscope.


Regeneration occurred at the end of d3 in hepatocytes which were radiation-damaged at the end of d1 and d2. On d1, some nNOS-positive staining was found in the neuronal cells of laminae I–III of the spinal cord and in neurons of the nodose ganglion, and on d3, some staining was observed in lamina X of the spinal cord, while none of note was in the nodose ganglion. Dense iNOS-positive staining was seen on d1 in the ependymal cells of the spinal cord and in the glial cells of the nodose ganglion, and on d3, there was still considerable iNOS staining in both tissues. There was clear eNOS-positive staining in the capillary endothelial cells of the spinal cord and light diffuse cytoplasmic staining in the neurons of the nodose ganglion on d1, and on d3, intense eNOS-positive staining was visible in several endothelial cells of the spinal cord, while light nuclear staining was recognised in the neurons of the nodose ganglion.


The nNOS, iNOS, and eNOS isoforms are activated in the spinal cord and nodose ganglion of rats after ionising radiation insult to the liver.


Common carp (Cyprinus carpio) is the most farmed freshwater fish worldwide. In recent years, use of natural products in fish diets has become popular in aquaculture, to improve fish health and growth performance. The present study investigated the effects of essential oil from the leaves of Monterey cypress (Cupressus macrocarpa; CMEO) on growth performance and blood parameters in common carp fingerlings. Identification of 96.1% of the CMEO total volatile components was achieved, with the highest contents for terpinen-4-ol and α-pinene, at 22.9% and 47.7%, respectively. After 60 days of feeding of the fingerlings with supplemented diets without CMEO (CMEO 0%) and with CMEO at 0.5%, 0.75% and 1%, the best growth performance was seen for those fish fed with the CMEO 0.5% diet. No significant differences were seen for the haematological parameters and blood cell indices versus CMEO 0%. Serum glucose, triglycerides, cholesterol and glutamic pyruvic transaminase were significantly reduced in the fingerlings fed with the CMEO 0.5% diet versus CMEO 0%. Thus, CMEO oil as a 0.5% dietary supplement can be used to improve the growth performance and health status of the common carp without any adverse effects seen.


Pentasomy X is an extremely rare sex chromosome abnormality, a condition that only affects females, in which three more X chromosomes are added to the normally present two chromosomes in females. We investigated the novel clinical findings in a 1-year-old female baby with pentasomy X, and determined the parental origins of the X chromosomes. Our case had thenar atrophy, postnatal growth deficiency, developmental delay, mongoloid slant, microcephaly, ear anomalies, micrognathia and congenital heart disease. A conventional cytogenetic technique was applied for the diagnosis of the polysomy X, and quantitative fluorescent polymerase chain reaction (QF-PCR) using 11 inherited short tandem repeat (STR) alleles specific to the chromosome X for the determination of parental origin of X chromosomes. A cytogenetic evaluation revealed that the karyotype of the infant was 49,XXXXX. Comparison of the infant’s features with previously reported cases indicated a clinically recognizable specific pattern of malformations referred to as the pentasomy X syndrome. However, to the best of our know-ledge, this is the first report of thenar atrophy in a patient with 49,XXXXX. The molecular analysis suggested that four X chromosomes of the infant originated from the mother as a result of the non disjunction events in meiosis I and meiosis II. We here state that the clinical manifestations seen in our case were consistent with those described previously in patients with pentasomy X. The degree of early hypotonia constitutes an important early prognostic feature in this syndrome. The pathogenesis of pentasomy X is not clear at present, but it is thought to be caused by successive maternal non disjunctions.