Cemal Cingi, Erdem Atalay Cetinkaya, Osman Halid Cam, Fatih Oghan and Nuray Bayar Muluk
Headache is a common complaint which otolaryngologists frequently have to evaluate and treat in practice. Migraine, tension, cluster and sinus-rooted headaches are the most confronted ones in primary visits. Therefore, considerations of multidiscipline may be required to diagnose the rhinogenic and non-rhinogenic headaches. Rhinogenic headache is a distinct type of headache that has attracted an increased amount of attention in the recent years. The mechanism of headache is not yet known. In fact, the treatments of the above-mentioned headaches are different, but they may intersect in some cases. Non-steroid anti-inflammatory drugs (NSAID) and opioids are often used in headache treatment. Codeine, a well-known opioid derivative, has been prescribed for analgesia for a long time. This review aims to discuss the possible use and efficiency of NSAID and codeine combinations in the treatment of rhinogenic headaches.