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Open access

A.O. Vida, A. Szöllősi, A. Maier, B.M. Boja and Mártha Orsolya

Abstract

Background: The prostate cancer (PCa) is the second most common cancer amongst men. An elevated prostate specific antigen (PSA) level can lead to PCa suspition, thus the confirmation has to be a histopathological one. However, not all increased PSA level means prostate cancer.

Material and Method: This retrospective study presents the results of 422 ultrasound guided prostate biopsy (PB) performed at the Clinic of Urology Târgu- Mureş, between 2011-2012. Inclusion criteria: patients with at least one negative PB and an elevated value of PSA.

Results: In a two year period, from the total of 422 PB (100%), in 179 (42.42%) patients the histopathological result was “negative”. In 154 (86%) of cases ultrasound guided biopsies were performed, mostly with an initial 6 core (98- 54.74% of patients). Average PSA level was 13.45 ng/ml (0.49-100 ng/ml), the histological findings confirmed PCa in 52.58% cases, normal prostatic tissue in 141 cases (78.77%), atypical small acinar proliferation in 12 patients (6.70%), prostate atrophy in 11 males (6.14%), benign prostatic hyperplasia in 10 cases (5.59%) and prostatitis in 5 cases (2.80%). In 30 cases (16.75%) rebiopsy was performed with a number of 10- 12 cores.

Conclusions: In order to increase PCa detection we should perform more cores during PB. In „negative” histopathological cases PSA should be monitorised and the biopsy should be repeated after 6 to 8 weeks from the initial biopsy. Patient’s compliance plays a vital role in the follow-up of the procedure

Open access

Ciprian Todea-Moga, Radu Boja, Daniel Porav-Hodade, Adrian Maier, Oliver Vida and Orsolya Mártha

Abstract

Introduction: The objective of this study is to evaluate the efficacy and safety of PCNL as a method of treatment of renal stones in elderly patients.

Material and method: This was a retrospective study conducted over a period of 5 years in the Clinic of Urology, where we analyzed the surgical protocols and case reports of 56 patients who underwent PCNL intervention.

Results: The incidence of urolithiasis was higher in females 69.6% (n = 39) than in males 30.4% (n = 17). Comorbidities included hypertension (48.2%), chronic ischemic cardiopathy (28.6%), chronic cardiac failure (16.1%), type II diabetes (17.9%), obesity (39.3%), chronic renal failure (8.9%), chronic or recurrent urinary tract infections (30.4%), history of kidney stones (21.4%), solitary kidney surgery (1.8%), renal malformation (horseshoe kidney and renal incomplete duplication) (3.6%), urethral stricture (3.6%). Nine patients had a duble “J” catheter inserted on admission. The group of male patients presented prostate hyperplasia in 35.3% of the cases and prostate carcinoma in 5.9% of the cases.

Conclusions: PCNL is an effective and safe treatment of kidney stones in elderly patients, with a stone- free rate increased despite existing comorbidities. The presence of comorbidities requires careful preoperative evaluation. PCNL in elderly patient has similar results to those seen in younger patients.

Open access

Attila Szollosi, Orsolya Martha, Lorand Denes, Arpad Oliver Vida, Adrian Maier and Zoltan Pavai

Abstract

Introduction: Prostate cancer is the second most diagnosed cancer in men, after lung cancer. The gold standard procedure in prostate cancer (PCa) diagnosis is the ultrasound guided prostate biopsy. Transurethral resection of the prostate (TURP) used in solving the bladder outlet obstruction, can have a role in detection of PCa. The aim of this retrospective study is to examine the role of transurethral resection of the prostate in the diagnosis and therapy of prostate cancer.

Materials and methods: At the Urology Clinic of Targu Mures we performed a total of 474 TURP over a two year period (2011-2013). The patients had a mean age of 71.857 years, and the indications were PCa with bladder outlet obstruction or bladder outlet obstruction with unknown causes but some with suspicion of PCa.

Results: In case of 474 patients with TURP performed for bladder outlet obstruction, the histopathology findings were the following: 61 cases with newly diagnosed PCa, some in spite of normal PSA values, 23 cases with already hormone treated prostate cancer, while in 50 cases TURP was preceded by prostate biopsy (in 8 cases with increased PSA and several negative biopsies, we could confirm PCa of the peripheral zone of the prostate).

Conclusion: TURP remains the elective surgical therapy of the bladder outlet obstruction, caused by BPH and even prostate cancer. Obtaining a greater volume of prostate tissue can help in the detection of prostate cancer in its early stages, especially in the transitional zone.

Open access

Veronica Maria Ghirca, D Porav-Hodade, C Chibelean, S Voidazan, M Vartolomei, R Boja and Orsolya Martha

Abstract

Objective: The aim of this study is to establish the importance of urodynamic investigations in women diagnosed with stress urinary incontinence (SUI) who have indication of surgical treatment.

Methods: We performed a retrospective study over a period of 3 years (January 2012-December 2014) in Clinic of Urology from Tirgu Mures. The inclusion criteria were: female patients diagnosed with SUI having indication of surgical treatment and the existence of urodynamic investigations (uroflowmetry and pressure-flow study). We evaluated 118 patients with SUI. From this patients, 24 cases (20.3%) accomplished the criteria from above.

Results: We included in this study 24 patients aged 64.25+/−8.25 (standard deviation). Pressure-flow study revealed an impaired detrusor contraction in 13 cases. Statistical anaysis pouved a relation between existence of post void residual urine (PVR) and underactive detrusor (UD) (p=0.01). There is no correlation between maximum flow rate (Qmax) and UD, r=0.18 (CI= −0.2-0.5), p=0.3 and between normal value of Qmax and normal detrusor pressure (Pdet), r= 0,28(CI=−0.6-0.8), p=0.58. Also there is no relation between a low Qmax and UD, p=0,5. There is a statistical relation between increased abdominal pressure (Pabd) and UD, p=0.02.

Conclusions: Uroflowmetry has the role to guide us concerning the micturition process Pressure-flow study is indicated in management of SUI, in selected cases, in patients with voiding symptomatology, the suspicion of a detrusor contractility dysfunction, abnormal uroflowmetry results, existence of PVR, in prediction of the surgical treatment outcome or if we think that the findings can change the choice of treatment.

Open access

Ciprian Todea-Moga, Radu Boja, Daniel Porav-Hodade, Adrian Maier, Veronica Ghirca and Orsolya Mártha

Abstract

Introduction and objectives: Percutaneous nephrolithotomy represent the main indication for patients with kidney stones, even in the presence of various comorbidities. In our clinic open surgery for this pathology is less than 0.5% of all procedures for renal stones. The objective of this paper is to assess the safety and efficacy of this procedure in patients over 70 years.

Material and methods: A retrospective study was performed for a period of 16 years (1997-2012). A totally of 323 patients entered in this study (162 women, 161 men), aged over 70 and with renal stones They were treated endoscopically by percutaneous nephrolithtomy or anterograde ureteroscopy. 85 patients (26.31%) had comorbidities that were preoperatively diagnosed and treated where necessary.

Results: Overall status of “stone free” at the end of surgery was present in 263 patients (81.42%). 60 patients (18.58%) had residual fragments. Residual stones were solved by a new percutaneuos nephrolithtomy session, spontaneous elimination or extracorporeal shock wave lithotripsy. The most common complications were bleeding and infection. We had no deaths. No hemostasis nephrectomy was necessary.

Conclusions: Recognized preoperative comorbidities do not represent risk factors in elderly patients, but it requires a rigorous evaluation in the preoperative period. The number, size and complexity of stones directly influences the state “stone free” at the end of surgery.

Open access

A. Maier, O. Vida, A. Szollosi, O. Golea, C. Todea, R. Boja and Orsolya Martha

Abstract

Introduction: One of the most common pathologies in urological praxis is urinary lithiasis. Extracorporeal shock wave lithotripsy (ESWL) or frequently retrograde ureteroscopy are modern pathways in the treatment of this kind of pathology. There are certain problems which may develop after the ureteroscopy such as infection with fever complication.

Material and method: This retrospective study evaluates 164 patients who underwent ureteroscopy treatment over a period of two years (2011-2012). We compared the infection complication episode (with fever) in 33 (20.12%) patients with antibiotic prophylaxis (group A) versus 131 (79.87%) patients without prophylaxis (group B). Antibiotics used for prophylaxis were: amoxicilinum and clavulanic acid, generation I and II cephalosporines.

Results: Twenty-four (14.63%) patients presented postsurgical fever. Most febrile patients were those with grade II hydronephrosis - 16 (66.66%), of which 2 (6.06%) patients from group A and 14 (10.68%) from group B. From group A, 3 (12%) patients with stones below 10 mm had fever, while 18 (14.87%) from group B developed this complication. Among the patients with stones’ size over 10 mm, 1 (14.28) patient from group A and 2 (25%) patients from group B had fever.

Conclusions: Patients undergoing the ureteroscopy treatment should be investigated before the procedures for the presence of bacteria in order to avoid complications like infection associated with fever. Antibiotic prophylaxis may reduce the incidence of postoperative infection in the ureteroscopy treatment.

Open access

Kovacs Zsolt, Tripon Robert, Nemes Nagy Eniko, Balogh Samarghitan Victor, Tilinca Mariana, Martha Orsolya and Fazakas Zita

Abstract

Arylsulfatase A (ARSA) is a lysosomal enzyme that plays an important role in catalysis of degradation of cerebrosidesulphate. The deficiency of this lysosomal enzyme causes an autosomal recessive disorder, called metachromatic leucodystrophy. However, a low ARSA activity can be observed in clinically healthy people, called ARSA pseudodeficiency. In our study we investigated the possible linkage between ARSA activity and sulfatide deficiency causing characteristic aspects of degenerative diseases, such as end stage kidney disease, type 2 Diabetes mellitus, Parkinson syndrome, prostate cancer and HIV (Human Immunodeficiency Virus) infection. We used a spectrophotometric method to determine the activity of ARSA. This method of enzyme dosage is based on a 4 hour long hydrolysis of the ARSA enzyme on 4-nitrocatechol sulfate (p-NCS) substrate. The unit of this measurement is nmol/ml/4h. Our findings show significant values in type 2 diabetes, Parkinson syndrome and chronic kidney disease. The importance of sulfatide in these diseases is well-known, thus presumably the variation of the ARSA’s activity might play an important role in the pathophysiology of these diseases, involving a vicious cycle between sulfatide degradation andthese diseases.

Open access

IA Nechifor-Boila, H Suciu, Loghin Andrada, Borda Angela, A Maier, Martha Orsolya and C Chibelean

Abstract

Surgery for renal cell carcinomas with tumor thrombus extending in the Inferior Vena Cava (IVC) can be particularly challenging, especially in the retrohepatic and intraatrial situations (T3b and T3c). Classically, these tumors require the intraoperative use of cardio-pulmonary by-pass (CPB) and deep hypothermic circulatory arrest (DHCA), that can result in specific complications (stroke, platelet dysfunction), with increased postoperative morbidity rates.

In urological practice, a particular IVC preparation method is currently in use, allowing full control both upon the IVC and its tributaries. It is derived from the “piggy-back” liver transplantation technique and implies the resection of all hepatic ligaments, leaving the hepatic vascular connections intact. This procedure is joined by a form of veno-venous bypass (between the right atrium and the infrarenal IVC) that allows a constant central venous pressure (by assuring blood return), with less bleeding and without the need for CPB and DHCA (avoiding, in this way, their inherent complications). All in all, these recently-introduced procedures can offer better thrombus control, improved oncologic outcomes and smaller complication rates. We aim to present a case of borderline T3b/T3c renal tumor that was successfully treated in our university center using these techniques.

Open access

Martha Orsolya, Tilinca Mariana, Tataru Octavian Sabin, Chiujdea Sever, Balan Daniel and Vartolomei Mihai Dorin

Abstract

Introduction: Prostate cancer is the sixth most common cancer in the world, the second most common cancer among men, and the most common cancer in men in Europe. Metastatic prostate cancer among young patients represents the rarest of the newly diagnosed prostate cancer, with few reports of cases with a longer survival.

Case presentation: We present the case of a 59 year-old male who was referred with back pain over the last month. Digital rectal examination highlighted an enlarged and totally indurated prostate of 4x4.5 cm, while abdominopelvic X-rays showed osteoblastic metastases in the spine and pelvis bones. Laboratory examinations revealed a Prostate Specific Antigen level of 7941 ng/ml. Prostate biopsy histology showed a bilateral prostate cancer with a Gleason score of 8. Androgen deprivation therapy and daily administration of biphosphonates were prescribed. After two years of treatment, the Prostate Specific Antigen level decreases to 8 ng/ml.

Conclusions: We reported the highest Prostate Specific Antigen level in a patient under 60 years old with metastatic prostate cancer. Prostate cancer remains an important public health problem due to the aggressiveness of the disease and advanced stage upon diagnosis. Prostate Specific Antigen is mandatory to evaluate, to have a reference level in order to prevent metastatic prostate cancer in young patients at diagnosis.

Open access

Vartolomei Mihai Dorin, Chibelean Calin Bogdan, Voidazan Septimiu, Martha Orsolya, Borda Angela, Boja Radu Mihail and Dogaru Grigore Aloiziu

Abstract

Objectives. The purpose of this study was to determine the evolution of patients with unifocal lateral wall MIBC (muscle invasive bladder cancer) after cystectomy with PLND (pelvic lymph node disection) at the Urology Clinic in Tirgu Mures, and to determine tumor stage and lymph node status before and after radical cystectomy with PLND.

Methods. This is a prospective study, conducted between 1 August 2012 to 31 July 2014 at Urology Clinic, with a median follow-up of 14 months (range 7-25). Inclusion criteria were: patients undergone cystectomy with PLND, and unifocal MIBC on the lateral wall of the bladder; exclusion criteria were: multiple bladder tumor, other location and clinical T stage > 3.

Results. Forteen patients met the inclusion criteria, median age was 61 (range 55-72), 85.71 % were male. An increase in T3 patients was noticed from 1 to 5 cases, we noticed a decrease of N0 lymph nodes from 78.6% to 57.1% postoperatively and on the controlateral side the kappa coefficient between the preoperatively and postoperatively negative lymph nodes was 0.63. On the tumor side the most common location for positive lymph nodes was external iliac with 3 nodes (21.4 %) and obturator fossa with 4 nodes (28.6 %) and on the contralateral side 2 positive nodes (14.3 %, obturator fossa, external, internal and common iliac nodes).

Conclusions. In unifocal bladder tumors, located on the lateral wall, PLND could be an alternative with comparable results with extended PLND especially in T1 and T2 patients associated with N0 before and after surgery.