The paper analyses the official use of international currencies as reserve currency (store of value) and anchor currency (unit of account). Examining the role as a reserve currency we note that the US dollar is the main reserve currency even if it recorded a decline given the decrease of the value of the US dollar reserve holdings and the gradual diversification of the currencies used. Since 2010, the euro's share decreased continuously may be due to the Eurozone crisis and the euro's depreciation against the US dollar. Then we show that the US dollar dominates as an anchor currency, though it was temporary abandoned during crisis time, having more than a regional dimension. At the same time, the use of the euro in exchange rate arrangements appears mainly in the regions that have close links with the euro area. Over the last few years, we have witnessed a gentle orientation towards a multimonetary world, especially regarding the use of the international currencies as reserve currency given the diversification of the currencies in which central banks understand to hold international reserves and the increasing share of the nontraditional currencies in total foreign exchange reserves.
Orăștean Ramona, Mărginean Silvia Cristina and Sava Raluca
Since 2012, there has been growing interest in bitcoin scientific research from different fields, including computer science and engineering, economics, business and finance, law and regulatory. The purpose of this paper is to evaluate bitcoin literature based on the structures and networks of science, as a first step in the research of this new phenomenon. Analysing the growing scientific literature on bitcoin published between 2012 and 2019, we provided useful insights on academic research in this field regarding publication year, type and category, authors, journals and citations. The source of the 887 documents which support the study was Web of Science Core Collection. Using VOSviewer software we have designed bibliometric maps based on text and bibliographic data. Our study provides a knowledge area map that identifies and evaluates the links between authors and countries distribution, the conceptual structure of the field, the structure and connections of most cited papers and journals. Resuming our findings, we note a concentration of the interest on some keywords (bitcoin, cryptocurrency, blockchain) and on some influential authors (with more than 100 citations per article). As a pure expression of digital economy, the research on bitcoin as an economic concept counts only 33.5% from the total contributions in the field.