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  • Author: Olga Padała x
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Introduction. Many women at the reproductive age face the dilemma of choosing the best contraceptive method. Apart from the natural birth control methods, there is a large selection of barrier, hormonal or invasive procedures. Birth control also includes emergency contraception, which can be used in a short period of time after an unprotected sex. In 2015, Ella One (uliprystal acetate) has been approved as an over-the-counter drug in Poland.

Aim. The purpose of this study was to check the knowledge and survey opinions of students of various faculties of Medical University of Lublin concerning the topic of emergency contraception.

Material and methods. An anonymous online questionnaire was used in the study. It included single and multiple-choice questions. The results were analyzed using Microsoft Excel 2011.

Results. 256 students, aged 19-27 took part in the study. 81.3% of the respondents declared themselves as Christians. 47% of interviewees said that using emergency contraception is ethical. In the group of Christians, 37.5% claimed that emergency contraceptives should not definitely be sold as an OTC drug while among the non-religious individuals, only 6% shared that view. 60.6% of students decided that EC is not a form of abortion, On the other hand, 29.9% opted for it being an abortion. In the group of female participants, 14.9% said that they had used emergency contraception at least once in their lives. As it comes to evaluation of students’ knowledge about the topic, only 15.23% knew the way of uliprystal acetate worked and even less (11.32%) were able to explain the way levonorgestrel works.

Discussion. According to the Catholic Church, the only acceptable forms of family planning include sexual abstinence during fertile days or calendar-based contraceptive methods. Postcoital contraception is treated as a sin punished with excommunication. Therefore, adhering by the rules imposed by the Roman Catholic Church has huge impact on the choices that believers make, also when it comes to birth control. This statement has been confirmed by many studies conducted in Poland, where 90% of population consider themselves Catholics.

Conclusions. Emergency contraception remains a controversial topic in Poland. Students of Medical University of Lublin seem to have insufficient knowledge about the effects of available drugs. There is a need to educate future healthcare providers, so they could provide reliable advice and recommendations to their patients.


Aim: The aim of the study was 1) to report the case of a 15-year-old boy who developed kleptomania symptoms during methylphenidate treatment and 2) to review the available therapeutic options for kleptomania based on a literature search of Medline and Google Scholar databases (2000–2018).

Case report: For the past seven years a 15-year-old boy had participated in counselling at a psychological counselling centre because of school problems and upbringing difficulties, and had a five-year history of psychiatric treatment for ADHD. He was admitted to the Department of Psychiatry because of recurrent stealing episodes that occurred during methylphenidate treatment. During the hospitalization, the patient did not observe the therapeutic contract – he stole items from other patients. Pharmacotheraputic and psychotherapeutic treatment resulted in a partial improvement in impulsive behaviour. At discharge, he spoke critically of his previous conduct and expressed readiness to continue treatment in an outpatient setting.


  1. Kleptomania has a very negative impact on a patient's overall well-being.
  2. In the reported case, kleptomania developed during methylphenidate treatment.
  3. Kleptomania should always be taken into account as a possible cause of stealing during a psychiatric examination, to avoid stigmatization of patients as criminals.
  4. Pharmacotherapy and cognitive-behavioural psychotherapy focused on the development of strategies, which can help the patient to control the urge to steal, are important components of kleptomania treatment.


Different names are used when referring to sex education, as well as there are different ways to teach the subject. Yet, it remains an essential part of the school curriculum. Using different curricula may yield various results. The content of sex education classes is dependent on various cultural and social aspects, specific to the certain country. In Poland, sex education-related topics are brought up during classes of Introduction to Family Planning, as it is called in Polish. The Ministry of Education is responsible for shaping sex education policies. The curriculum mostly focuses on STI-related diseases (including HIV/AIDS), contraceptive methods and teen pregnancy issues. Unfortunately, psychological aspects of sex or sexual assault subjects are rarely discussed upon. As a result, sexual initiation often results in unwanted pregnancies or infections. Shame is a huge obstacle to effective communication on these topics between teens ant their parents. This shows the need for organizing educational meetings for parents or carers to help them start a conversation on this delicate subject with their kids. Sex education should be focused on presenting upright knowledge with medical accuracy, which will be an addition to the content provided by parents. Well-prepared teachers can have impact over lowering the rate of sexually transmitted infections and teenage pregnancies. Sex education has also a significant influence over promoting responsible sex and increasing teens’ awareness.


Aim. The aim of the study was to analyze the awareness of testicular cancer and prevention behaviors among male residents of the Lubelskie Province.

Material and methods. The study was conducted in 2015 and involved 131 men aged 17 to 38. A questionnaire designed by the authors was used as a research tool. The obtained results were analyzed statistically and the Chi2 test was used.

Results. Using a 0-5 scale, every fourth participant assessed their knowledge as 0, while only 7% assessed it as 5. The average level was 3.1 among students of medicine, while among students of other faculties it was 1.6. The Internet was cited as the most popular source of information about testicular cancer, while the healthcare staff was ranked as the last one. As much as 83.2% of men from the study group had never learnt how to perform testicular self-examination properly. Medical students were more likely to carry out this procedure regularly - 32%, compared to non-medical students - 12%.

Conclusions. The awareness of testicular cancer among the population of young men from the Lubelskie Province is insufficient, which is the main cause of their failure to perform regular self-examinations. The role of general practitioners is too little, despite the fact that most males consider them as the most reliable source of the information. Implementation of education and training programs for prevention of testicular cancer is required.


Introduction: Manganese has a role in the membrane transport systems, synthesis of protein, vitamin C, and vitamins B, catalysis of hematopoiesis, regulation of the endocrine, immune system, blood sugar, reproduction, digestion, and blood coagulation. Furthermore, the level of manganese concentrations in human body appears to affect the occurrence of schizophrenia. The aim of this study was to search for relationships between the manganese level and the onset of schizophrenia.

Material and methods: A descriptive review was performed based on a literature search on Medline and Google scholar from 2003 to 2020, using keywords: schizophrenia, manganese, Mn. The included studies were meta-analyses, case-control studies, and cohort studies that examined differences in manganese concentrations in patients with schizophrenia and healthy controls.

Result: Eight studies were selected for the review, with one reporting elevated levels of manganese, two showing no significant differences, and the rest including two meta-analyses stating lower manganese concentrations in patients with schizophrenia in comparison with controls.

Conclusion: In most of the researched studies, manganese concentrations in patients with schizophrenia were lower than in control groups, but not all of them reached the same conclusions. The relationship between manganese levels and schizophrenia must be further investigated.