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Radu Agrosoaie, Adrian Streinu-Cercel, Doina Azoicai, Codrina Bejan, Olga Dorobat, Alexandru Mihai, Mona Popoiu and Alexandru Rafila

Abstract

Introduction: Invasive fungal infections have stood as an important research subject for the past 20 years, being considered as a crucial effect of advancing healthcare services. Low identification rates of invasive fungal infections in blood cultures and low sensibility of biomarkers determine empiric treatments which lead to a change in epidemiological data and antifungal susceptibility. The aim: The epidemiological evaluation of invasive fungal infections and the assessment of antifungal resistance related to this condition. Methods and material: An “antifungal stewardship” retrospective study was developed between January 2010 and April 2016. An epidemiological analysis was performed on 79 cases with proven invasive fungal infections in bloodstream, catheter, and cerebrospinal fluid. We considered: age, gender, HIV status, place of residence, and first option in medical practice of antifungal treatment. The laboratory analysis was performed by the Microbiology Laboratory at “Prof. Dr. Matei Bals” National Institute for Infectious Diseases, Bucharest. Minimum inhibitory concentrations (MIC’s) of 15 isolates were identified using colorimetric micro broth dilution panel YEASTONE ®YO10 and compared with susceptibilities obtained by VITEK2®C system. Candida parapsilosis ATCC 22019 was used as reference. Results: The incidence of invasive fungal infections was 3.7 on 1000 hospitalized patients. The age of the study population ranged between 12 and 83 years, and most were male (59%). The majority of subjects were from an urban area (84%), and 27% of them were HIV positive. The results obtained in VITEK2C® were similar with those from YEASTONE® YO10 for fluconazole, voriconazole, amphotericin B (100%), without any minor, major or very major errors. The fluconazole was the first option of treatment, followed by voriconazole, caspofungin, anidulafungin. In 37% of cases the first treatment option was replaced with a secondary antifungal therapy accordingly with antifungal breakpoints obtained by Vitek ®. Conclusions: No rates of resistance to fluconazole, amphotericin B, voriconazole were obtained. Fluconazole was the major first line antifungal therapy. Conclusions: No rates of resistance to fluconazole, amphotericin B, voriconazole were obtained. Fluconazole was the major first line antifungal therapy.

Open access

Alexandru Rafila, Daniela Talapan, Olga Mihaela Dorobăţ, Gabriel Adrian Popescu, Daniela Piţigoi, Dragoş Florea and Florin Corneliu Buicu

Abstract

Introduction: Hospital-acquired infections caused by Enterobacteriaceae producing different types of carbapenem- hydrolizing enzymes are now commonly observed and represent a great limitation for antimicrobial therapy. The purpose of the study was to evaluate the emergence of carbapenem-resistant Enterobaceriaceae among the strains isolated from hospitalized patients to the National Institute of Infectious Diseases, Bucharest (NIID) and the identification of different types of carbapenemases, using phenotypic methods.

Materials and methods: Between January - June 2014, 587 strains of Klebsiella pneumoniae, Enterobacter species and E.coli were isolated from various clinical specimens. We were included all non-susceptible strains to carbapenems, according to EUCAST 2014 clinical breakpoints, as determined by using microdilution MicroScan Panels (Siemens Healthcare Diagnostics). The modified Hodge test (MHT) was performed as phenotypic confirmatory test for carbapenemase production according to CLSI guidelines and the combination disk test (KPC, MBL , OXA-48 Confirm kit, Rosco Diagnostica) according to EUCAST guidelines.

Results: A total of 45 non-repeat Enterobaceriaceae (32 strains Klebsiella pneumoniae, 5 strains E.coli, 8 strains Enterobacter spp) were identified as non-susceptibile to one or more carbapenems (93,33% ertapenem, 53,33% meropenem, 48,88% imipenem). Most strains were isolated from urine (75,55%). MHT was positive in 55,6% (25/45) of carbapenem-resistant strains; in 24 cases the carbapenem-hydrolizing enzyme was identified as: OXA-48-like (n=16), KPC (n=4), MBL (n=1), KPC + MBL (n=2) and MBL + OXA-48-like (n=1). All carbapenemase- positive strains were 100% resistant to 3rd and 4th generation cephalosporins, showing less resistance to tigecycline (12,5% resistant and 25% intermediate), colistin (37,5%) and fosfomycin (41,6%).

Conclusion: During 6 months period, there were isolated 7,66% (45/587) carbapenem-resistant Enterobacteriaceae (K. pneumoniae 21,47%, E. coli 1,23%). Twenty four strains were carbapenemase-producers. The most frequent carbapenemase isolated in our study was OXA-48-like.

Open access

Cristina Popescu, Gabriel Adrian Popescu, Olga Dorobăț, Alexandru Rafilă, Diana Tănase, Claudia Mikula, Gudrun Weissensteiner and Steliana Huhulescu

Abstract

We report first description of clinical cases of OXA-48 carbapenemase-producing Klebsiella pneumoniae originating from patients hospitalized in the most important Infectious Diseases Hospital from Romania, between December 2012 and March 2013. All strains were isolated from patients who were previously admitted in surgical wards. None of the patients had been admitted in a hospital outside of Romania.