Oleg Gorbaniuk, Andrij Mirowich, Władysława Leoszko, Julia Gorbaniuk, Aleksandra Kordon, Maria Świderska, Olena Kuts and Anna Korczak
The aim of the psycholexical study was to classify the terms describing individual differences in the Ukrainian language.
Method. To accomplish this objective, we analysed 220,000 entries included in a universal dictionary of Ukrainian and identified 20,024 terms – adjectives, participles, type-nouns, and attribute-nouns – used to describe human characteristics. The identified person-descriptive terms were classified by a team of five trained judges into 13 categories and subcategories. The judges’ taxonomic decisions were tested for validity and interjudge agreement.
Results. This procedure yielded lists of Ukrainian personality descriptors, consisting, respectively, of 2,426 adjectives, 2,255 participles, 1,653 attribute-nouns, and 1,474 type-nouns. The analysis of semantic redundancy of terms representing different parts of speech but having the same common morpheme among dispositional descriptors identified a total of 1,634 morphemes that differed in terms of meaning. The analysis identified 212 (22.0% of morphemes) type-nouns that could not be replaced by any different part of speech with the same morpheme to describe the same personality trait.
Conclusions. Ukrainian personality lexicon has a comparable or higher diversity of personality-descriptive vocabulary, attested to by the presence of 96% Big Factors markers from international comparative analyses of psycholexical structures of natural languages. The results of the study contribute to the debate on universals in the description of individual differences and constitute the basis for future questionnaire-based studies aimed at identifying the psycholexical structure of the Ukrainian language.
Purpose: The aim of this study is to determine a structure of brand personality at an ecological level and to develop norms for positioning a particular brand in relation to other brands by means of brand personality scales.
Methodology: We present the results of a study in which 1,642 participants aged 15 to 82 (mean 35.3; 51.9% females) were involved. Each respondent marked three to four brands from different categories of goods and services on a 20-item adjectival list for measuring brand personality. As a result, 6,548 descriptions of 224 brands from 46 categories were collected.
Findings: Our analyses show that the structure of the differences among brand personalities on the Polish market can be described in terms of four dimensions: competence, spontaneity, subtlety, and egoism. The established dimensions explain 85% of the variance. A distribution of the results within the scales applied served as a basis for establishing specific norms for each of the four scales.
Limitations: The norms established have a country-level character and are inclusively adequate and reliable for companies that purchase products and services on the Polish market.
Originality: Our study presents a new, ecological approach to thinking about brands. Namely, it enables a more precise determination of the position of a certain brand in relation to many other competing brands and allows for a more efficient use of the potential for constructing brand personality.