Studies of structural and hydrogeomorphological units (HGU) that are indicators of groundwater occurrence were carried out across an area extent of more than 700 km2 within the hard rock terrain of southwestern Nigeria. These studies integrated geological remote sensing techniques (RST) and geographical information system (GIS) methods to generate thematic maps that included elevation, drainage, lineaments and vegetation index for characterising the attributes of groundwater occurrence across the area. The results revealed that the lineament system is mainly rectilinear with major trends of NNW-SSE and NE-SW on the gneiss, NW-SE and NE-SW on porphyritic granite and NNE-SSW, NW-SE and E-W on migmatite. The discharge zones in the area are the lowland terrains underlain by gneiss and amphibolite. Similarly, variably directional discontinuities that are related to rock contacts are equally laden with groundwater. Conversely, the recharge areas are the high-lying terrains characterised by higher fracture density and underlain by porphyritic granite and migmatite. Additionally, there are evidences of groundwater seepage along the major river channels. Therefore, besides the rock structures, landform is another crucial factor that guides groundwater distribution in the study area.
Groundwater flow of the basement terrains of the Ibarapa region was studied by carrying out pumping test and measurement of borehole inventory. The view was to identify the associated aquifer systems from the time-drawdown curves, quantify the estimable hydraulic properties and develop hypothetical models for the understanding of the groundwater flow in the area underlain by diverse crystalline bedrocks. Three aquifer types were identified namely, dual, leaky and regolith. The yield of groundwater in dual and leaky aquifers that dominated terrains underlain by amphibolite and gneisses was sustainable, but the discharge of regolith aquifers mainly associated with migmatite and granite terrains declined at late pumping stage. The transmissivities of the dual and leaky aquifers were between 2.02 and 11.65 m2/day, while those of regolith aquifers were mostly less than 1.00 m2/day. The average aquifer transmissivities in m2/day by bedrocks were: 6.85, 2.57, 0.76 and 1.72, correspondingly. The inter-relationships between transmissivities and groundwater discharge showed diverse aquifer representations, from sustainable high-yielding to unsustainable low-yielding types. Conscientious effort is, therefore, required for well construction in the area.