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  • Author: Oladimeji Adebayo x
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Background: Symbols play a very crucial role in the culture of a society, and the medical society is not an exception to this. In the world of Orthodox medicine, the Rod of Asclepius is regarded as the true symbol of medicine. However, there exists to be an issue of interchange of the correct medical symbol (i.e. Rod of Asclepius) with another similar symbol (i.e. the Caduceus). This study aims to explore medical students’ knowledge and opinion on the appropriate symbol of medicine.

Methods: This study was a cross-sectional survey of 84 medical students at the Usmanu Danfodiyo University (UDU), North-West Nigeria. Study tool was a paper questionnaire. The collected data were analyzed using the Epi info 7 Software.

Results: The mean (±SD) age of the participants was 23.7 (±3.4) years, 72.6% were males, and 73.8% were in their 4th year. Only 59.5% had interest in non-medical literature. Also, only 6.0% had doctors as their parents. The majority (88.1%) of the participants erroneously identified the Caduceus symbol as the most appropriate symbol of medicine. Furthermore, only 45.2% indicated that the Rod of Asclepius and the Caduceus symbols originated from ancient Greece. Virtually all (97.6%) the participants opined that the Caduceus symbol is the most popular symbol of Medicine. Finally, the majority (73.8%) of the participants recommended that a course on the History of Medicine should be added to the medical curriculum of their school.

Conclusion: This study found that the majority of the surveyed medical students did not know much about the historically correct medical symbol. This shows the need for awareness creation on the true symbol of medicine among medical students, and even the public-at-large.


Egg production, survival, egg quality and shell characteristics in laying pullets offered honey in drinking water during hot season were determined using hens (28-week-old, n = 120) allotted to either 0 (CONTROL), 10 (10H) or 20 ml honey/L water (20H) for 16 weeks divided into 4 phases of 4 weeks each. Data on hen-day production (EP), egg weight (EW), length (EL), breadth (EB), shape index (ESI), yolk weight (YW), yolk percentage (YP), albumen height (AH), albumen weight (AW), albumen percentage (AP), Haugh unit (HU), shell weight (SW), shell percentage (SP), shell thickness (ST) and survival (SR) were subjected to ANOVA.

EP was significantly (P < 0.001) affected by treatment during phases 1-4. 20H resulted in higher EP than CONTROL in phase 1. In phase 2, EP was similar in CONTROL and 20H, but 10H was lower than the two. Higher EPs were recorded in CONTROL than in honey groups (phases 3, 4). EW was significantly (P < 0.01) affected by honey in week 1 only. Birds on 10H laid heavier eggs than CONTROL. 10H hens laid significantly longer (P < 0.001) eggs with higher (P = 0.008) ESI than control hens while 20H birds had significantly lower values of AH (P < 0.01), AP (P = 0.05) and HU (P = 0.05). Honey had no significant (P > 0.05) effect on EB, YW, YP, AW, SW, SP and SR, but improved (P < 0.05) ST in the first 2 phases. To ensure improvement in egg production and egg shell thickness in laying pullets during hot season, honey at 20 ml/L water can be offered for 4 weeks.


Introduction: Peer learning is an important component of the postgraduate medical curriculum, and it is considered as an integral part of learning in some countries. The practice of peer learning among postgraduate trainees, especially the resident doctors, is an area that has not been explored in Nigeria and other third world countries. This study aims to examine the practice, perception, and drivers of peer-to-peer training in Nigeria.

Methodology: This study was a national multi-centre and multi-disciplinary cross-sectional survey, conducted among resident doctors in Nigeria. Semi-structured questionnaires were used to obtain respondents’ biodata, perception and practice on peer learning. Data were analysed using SPSS version 23 software. Results were presented as frequency table and proportion, means, and standard deviation. Inferential statistics such as bivariate analysis was performed.

Results: Majority, 287 (73.2%), considered the peer education programme as an appropriate learning practice, 173 (45.9%) considered peer education programme integrated part of the training, while 350/383 (88.2%) engaged in a peer education programme. Statistically, a significant association was found between those who considered peer training as appropriate (p = 0.038) and those who considered peer education as an integral part of postgraduate medical training curriculum (p =0.009).

Conclusion: Peer learning is popular among resident doctors in Nigeria. Concerted efforts are needed to re-structure the residency training curriculum in order to maximize the benefits of this learning approach for an effective training programme.



Early career doctors (ECDs) are faced with many challenges due to their transition from undergraduate medical/dental studentship to being postgraduate doctors and being in an early phase of their career. The specific factors that affect ECDs in their careers and endeavors at the workplace range from poor remuneration, particularly in developing countries, to psychosocial problems (such as burnout [BO] syndrome). There is a dearth of information on BO among ECDs in Nigeria. This qualitative study aims to explore the opinions of ECDs in Nigeria on the causal/predisposing factors of BO, effects of BO, and strategies for mitigating BO among ECDs in Nigeria.


Using purposive sampling method, two sessions of focus group discussions (FGDs) involving 14 ECDs (key informants) holding key leadership positions and who were delegates of other ECDs in Nigeria were conducted to explore their experiences on psychological issues among ECDs. Data collected were transcribed and analyzed thematically.


BO is an issue of serious concern among ECDs in Nigeria. The causes of BO are diverse, some of which include low staff strength, prolonged work hours, wrong counseling, lack of job description and specification, and abuse of powers by trainers. In order to mitigate the issue of BO among ECDs, the respondents recommended that work policy review, medical workforce strengthening, stakeholder dialog on ECDs’ welfare, regular psychological review of ECDs, and provision of free yearly medicals need to be looked into. Conclusion: Our findings revealed that the participants considered BO issues among ECDs to be common, and it affected their performance and the overall quality of care in Nigeria health system. Based on our findings, there is an urgent need to mitigate the problem of emotional exhaustion among ECDs in Nigeria.