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Urszula Myga-Piątek and Oimahmad Rahmonov

Abstract

Considering the general typology of landscapes, winery landscapes are a subtype of agricultural landscapes. A winery landscape is an area in which the dominant land use or indigenous vegetation consists of extensive grapevine crops, that is, vineyards and/or areas covered by wild grapevines; where a specific wine culture has evolved, or grapes constitute an important part of the local diet. In this paper, winery landscapes are studied at two levels: typological (as a repeatable, specific type of area with precisely defined characteristic features), and regional (regional areas that are unique and individual). The authors analyze the evolution of winery landscapes over time and describe their natural and historical aspects. A wide range of factors were taken into consideration: historical and political, socio-economic, cultural and religious influences, as well as the natural environmental background. This paper aims to describe the evolution of winery landscapes in Europe and beyond by considering the Mediterranean Basin, Asia Minor, Transcaucasia, and Central Asia.

Open access

Oimahmad Rahmonov, Jerzy Cabala, Renata Bednarek, Dorota Rozek and Adam Florkiewicz

Abstract

Research to evaluate the role of the soil algae in the initiation of pedogenesis in sandy areas and to establish the mineral, chemical and organic composition of soil-algal crusts was done. The investigations area is located in southern Poland in a landscape of drift sand (Bledowska Desert) formed as a result of medieval deforestation related to Ag, Pb and Fe mining activities. Fifteen species of algae (Cyanophyta, Chlorophyta and Heterokontophyta) were identified. In the soil-algal crusts, Corg contents ranged from 0.35-2.23%, Pavail from 9-34 mg · kg−1 and Nt was variable. In investigated area the ground on which soil algae developed was acidic (pH 4.4-5.7 in KCl). Among mineral components in the crust, phases rich in Fe and K dominated (776.5(±2.3) - 2803(±31) mg · kg−1 and 230.5(±3.7) - 696(±22) mg · kg−1, respectively) and elevated concentrations of Zn, Mn and Pb occurred. Soil-crust organic matter includes aliphatic and aromatic compounds, carbohydrate derivatives, phenols, furan and pyrene structures. N compounds have significant contribution in composition of soil-algal crusts - the algae are main source of organic matter in this stage of soil formation. It could accelerate the regeneration of disturbed ecological systems.

Open access

Leszek Majgier and Oimahmad Rahmonov

Abstract

The paper shows the occurrences of cemetery soils and the physico-chemical features of soils in the cemeteries Słabowo and Szymonka (Great Mazurian Lakes District). Necrosols are anthropogenic soils and belong to Urbanosols. They form only in the area of cemeteries. Four soil profiles (Necrosols) were investigated in terms of morphological description and chemical properties especially phosphorus (Pt), organic carbon (OC) and nitrogen (Nt). These profiles were compared with the reference profile (Rusty soil, according to WRB 2007 Brunic Arenosol) made outside the cemetery. On the basis of research Necrosol has been defined as a soil formed by special human activity in cemeteries and burial grounds with specific soil horizon sequence, and also physical and chemical properties.

Open access

Magdalena Opała, Tadeusz Niedźwiedź and Oimahmad Rahmonov

Abstract

Samples from Mongolian Ephedra (Ephedra equisetina Bunge) was collected in the Zaravshan Mountains (the Fann Mountains), Tajikistan. The wood of Ephedra is ring-porous with well-defined growth rings. Annual ring widths were measured, individual series were first cross-dated and then averaged as a standard chronology. Correlations were calculated between the standard ring-width chronology and monthly climate data recorded in the weather station Iskanderkul. Dendroclimatological analysis showed that July temperature is the growth limiting factor of this species. Our study has shown high dendrochronological potential of Ephedra.

Open access

Oimahmad Rahmonov, Leszek Majgier, Wiaczesław Andrejczuk, Jarosław Banaszek, Dominik Karkosz, Tomasz Parusel and Artur Szymczyk

Abstract

Rahmonov O., Majgier L., Andrejczuk W., Banaszek J., Karkosz D., Parusel T., Szymczyk A.: Landscape diversity and biodiversity of Fann Mountains (Tajikistan). Ekologia (Bratislava), Vol. 32, No. 4, p. 388-395, 2013.

The aim of study is a presentation of main vegetation landscape diversity and biodiversity in case of endemic species in the Fann Mountains area, in horizontal and vertical approach. In terms of biodiversity, the high-mountain ecosystems of Central Asia include the most valuable areas in the world called as hotspot, and also are exposed to intense human pressure causing the destruction of habitats. Vegetation landscapes of Fann Mountains are very diverse because of high-mountain character of this area, local climatic conditions, topography and habitats. That differentiation leads up to biodiversity and formation of unique plant landscapes and endemic species. The vegetation landscapes in altitude order are represented by forbs meadow steppe, thymes, swamp, broad-leaf forest, juniper forests, flood-plain small-leaved forest, tugai, light deciduous forest, pistachio, forbs wormwood, almond, rare vegetation with cushion-shaped species, wormwood eurotia, steppe, thorny grasses with shrub-steppe, rocks and taluses with rare vegetation alpine zones. High level of endemism in Fann Mountains is connected to natural conditions such as geological structure, relief, high-mountain ranges and climate conditions. This fact has an influence on forming mosaic biotops, often isolated by orographic barriers.