The laboratory experiment described in this article evaluated the death rate of larvae of Haemonchus contortus (Rudolphi, 1803) nematodes of the Strongylida order and Strongyloides papillosus (Wedl, 1856) of the Rhabditida order under the impact of different concentrations of 8 flavouring acids and source materials approved for use in and on foods and in medicine (formic, wine, benzoic, salicylic, stearic, kojic, aminoacetic, succinic acids). Minimum LD50 for third stage larvae of (L3) S. papillosus was observed with salicylic and wine acids, for L3H. contortus larvae – with formic acid. Minimum impact on all studied stages of development of nematodes was caused by stearic, kojic, aminoacetic and succinic acids: larvae did not die in the course of one day even at 1 % concentration of these substances. The best parameters of LD50 were observed for benzoic and formic acid. Further experiments on flavouring acids and source materials approved for use in and on foods and in medicines, and also their compounds, will contribute to developing preparations with a stronger impact on nematode larvae – parasites of the digestive tract of vertebrate animals and humans.
The objective of this study is to evaluate the viability of larval nematodes of ungulates under the infl uence of 14 fl avourings and source materials approved for use in and on foods. Minimum LD50 for L3Strongyloides papillosus (Wedl, 1856) were observed when using Cinnamaldehyde, α-Terpineol and Benzyl alcohol, for L1–2S. papillosus under the infl uence of Benzyl alcohol, Cinnamaldehyde, L-Linalool and Benzyl acetate, for L3Haemonchus contortus (Rudolphi, 1803) under the influence γ-Undecalactone and Cinnamaldehyde. Ethyl acetate, β-Ionone и D-Limonene had the lowest effect on all the studied stages of development of the nematodes: larvae did not die during 24 hours even at 1 % concentration of these substances. Further experiments with usage of mixtures of the substances studied in this article will contribute to the development of preparations with a stronger effect on larvae of nematode parasites of the digestive system of vertebrate animals.
Strongyloides papillosus Wedl, 1856 is one of the most widespread nematodes parasitic in domestic animals. This species has been recorded on almost all continents of the planet. It parasitizes the small intestine of rabbits, sheep and cattle. At laboratory conditions, this species can also infect guinea pigs. Morphological variability of S. papillosus in relation to host species has not yet been studied. Our research showed that L1 and L2 of S. papillosus reached their maximum size in all parameters in guinea pigs: for L1 — length and width of the body, length of esophagus and intestine; for L2 — width of body and length of intestine. L3 of S. papillosus had statistically reliable differences in almost all parameters (except the length of intestine) when parasitizing goats and rabbits. For L3 the width of the body and the length of the tail end, we determined differences between S. papillosus infecting rabbits and guinea pigs, and also goats and guinea pigs. Male S. papillosus were observed to have statistically reliable differences in all morphological parameters for goats and rabbits, and also for rabbits and guinea pigs. Practically all measurements (except the length of the tail) were larger for S. papillosus in guinea pigs and goats than those in rabbits. Free-living females statistically differed by larger size in goats and rabbits. The smallest dimensions were determined for all free-living stages of S. papillosus in goats (except males). The largest size in most cases was determined for larval stages of S. papillosus in guinea pigs.