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Oľga Kyselovičová and Erika Zemková

Postural Stability in Aerobic Gymnastics Specific Positions

The study compares the effect of maximal jumps and sport-specific exercises on parameters of balance. Two balance elements (free support vertical split and frontal split) were analyzed in a group of 8 aerobic gymnasts (average age = 17,0 ± 1,3 years, average body height = 163,0 ± 6,9 cm, average body weight = 54,5 ± 6,12 kg, BMI 20,4 ± 1,46 kg.m-2). The FiTRO Sway Check stabilographic system, allowing the monitoring of horizontal movement of centre of gravity with the help of dynamometric board, was used for assessment. Stabilographic parameter of the velocity of the centre of pressure (mean and in antero-posterior and medio-lateral directions) was registered at 100 Hz. The results show significant differences in average sway length in medio-lateral and antero-posterior direction, in both analysed difficulty elements. This indicates that balance impairment after exercise and its readjustments to pre-exercise level depends not only on intensity of proprioceptive stimulation but also on type of exercise.

Open access

Erika Zemková, Ołga Kyselovičová and Dušan Hamar

Postural Sway Response to Rebound Jumps of Different Duration

Purpose. The study compares the sway variables after continuous CMJs eliciting different level of proprioceptive stimulation determined by percentage of max height of the jump. Basic procedures. A group of 11 aerobic dancers performed in random order repeated jumps with maximal effort until the jump height dropped to 75%, 50%, and 25% of previously established max jump achieved in non-fatigued conditions. The height of CMJs was calculated from flight times registered by FiTRO Jumper. Thirty seconds prior to and two minutes after exercises the COP velocity was registered at 100 Hz by means of posturography system FiTRO Sway Check based on dynamometric platform. Main findings. Results showed that max height of the jump (MJ) decreased from 27.7 ± 2.8 cm to 20.1 ± 2.6 cm when subjects matched 75% of 1MJ, to 13.8 ± 1.6 cm at 50% of 1MJ, and to 6.9 ± 0.8 cm at 25% of 1MJ. The COP velocity was significantly (p ≤ 0.01) higher after jumps dropped to 75% of 1MJ as compared to baseline (from 9.2 ± 1.6 mm/s to 14.5 ± 2.4 mm/s). Its further significant (p ≤ 0.05) increase was observed after jumps dropped to 50% of 1MJ (to 19.6 ± 2.6 mm/s). However, there was only slight increase in COP velocity after jumps dropped to 25% of 1MJ (to 21.4 ± 3.2 mm/s). Conclusions. Taking into account a gradual increase in sway velocity after jumps matched 75% and 50% of 1MJ and its no further increase after jumps matched 25% of 1MJ, it may be assumed that post-exercise balance impairment is not linearly related to the level of proprioceptive stimulation.

Open access

Alena Cepková, Olga Kyselovičová, Oto Honz, Marián Uváček and Ján Žiška

Summary

The article dealt with the assessment of somatic changes of the students at the Slovak University of Technology (STU), Faculty of Mechanical Engineering (FME), specifically expressed by Body Mass Index (BMI) and Waist Hip Ratio (WHR) during the years 2007 and 2013. In total 2228 men were involved in the study and measured upon their entry at the university. It was found out that the values of BMI belonged to the category of average range measured for adults (from 22.96 kg.m-2 to 24.60 kg.m-2) and indicates standard values. Statistically significant differences (p<0.01) were discovered between the years 2011 (23.70 kg.m-2) and 2012 (24.60 kg.m-2), 2012 (24.60 kg.m-2) and 2013 (22.96 kg.m-2). In 2012 participants achieved in average the highest values (BMI = 24.60 kg.m-2), which borders with a moderate overweight. In the contrary, in 2013 the students achieved the lowest values of BMI (22.96 kg.m-2). A slight increase of average BMI values may be observed from the first test in 2007 until 2012. The predominance of standard weight was measured at 71% of the total number of monitored students and the predominance of overweight was measured at 22% of students from the total number of university students. The observation of WHR numbers makes us conclude that during our seven year study no significant differences were discovered in the first five years. The values were stable and from the mean point of view, they do not indicate the risk of development of diseases relating to overweight and obesity. In 2012 and 2013 a slight decrease of WHR values was detected < 0.85. Statistically significant differences (p<0.05) were discovered between the years 2010 (0.854) and 2011 (0.864), and also between 2011 (0.864) and 2012 (0.843). The lowest mean value of WHR was measured when performing the last test in the year 2013 (0.823). There was a statistically significant difference at p<0.05 within the years 2012 and 2013. The highest mean value was discovered in 2011 (0.864). However, the average values achieved in a group of students were lower than 1.0, which can be evaluated as a set with no risk of obesity and overweight disease development.

Open access

Oľga Kyselovičová, Alena Cepková, Alžbeta Staňová, Tomáš Gregor and Dagmar Lörincziová

Summary

The aim of the study was to determine the degree of the influence of aerobic program on mental state of the trainees after a single and short-term application. We tried to find out the positive effects of an aerobics on the selected parameters of mental state of women that performed aerobics recreationally. Twenty-two healthy women (age 35 ± 5 years) were involved in the specific aerobic program with mini trampolines (jumping) over the period of 5 weeks. To measure the psychological parameters a modified questionnaire of type X-STAI was distributed before and after the single work out at the beginning of the study and after the 5 weeks period. Chi-quadrat analysis was used to evaluate the data. The greatest and statistically the most significant differences were recorded in the parameters ´enthusiastic´, ´boosted by energy´ and ´relaxed´, in comparison with the emotions at the beginning and at the end of the lesson in initial measuring. Comparison of changes after the 5 weeks period at the beginning and at the end of the lesson shows statistical significance in all parameters, except ´tired´. No statistical changes occurred at either the beginning or the end of the lesson comparing initial and final phases. Based on the results, we can conclude that specialized aerobic training provokes immediate changes in psychological state of the trainees via increase of their positive and decrease of negative emotions right after the lesson and when compared to its beginning. This leads to a better mental stability and a greater resistance to the influences of outer environment on mental state.

Open access

Oľga Kyselovičová, Jana Labudová, Erika Zemková, Dušana Čierna and Michal Jeleň

Summary

Synchronized swimming and aerobic gymnastics are competitive sports that have grown in popularity throughout the Slovakia and around the world. Unfortunately, a paucity of research exists either on anthropometric and physiological characteristics or physical benefits of these sports. The present study examined anthropometric and cardiovascular characteristics of control group - CO (n = 10) in comparison to competitive synchronized swimmers - SS (n = 11) and aerobic gymnasts - AG (n = 10) between the ages of 13 and 25 years. The physical measures were assessed per the protocols in the following order: height (BH), weight (BW), body mass index (BMI), and % body fat (% BF). The measurements of maximal oxygen consumption (VO2max) and maximum heart rate (HRmax) were examined by spiroergometry via COSMED K4b2. All measurements were collected by trained data collection staff. An analysis of variance (Kruskal - Wallis) with a Mann-Whitney U test for the significant effect among the three groups showed that aerobic gymnasts were taller than synchronized swimmers and control group (p = .02). Training and conditioning requirements specific for the two athletic groups caused that AG and SS have higher level of VO2max (p = .02) and VO2max.kg-1 (p = .00), and also lower level of the body weight (p= .01), BMI (p = .01) and the % BF (p = .00). These findings confirm that selected parameters are considered the bases for success in elite sports. This information could also help to design specific training and evaluate the adaptation to training stimuli with the aim to maximize sport performance.