Attention deficit hyperactivity disorder (ADHD) is one of the most prevalent disorders in childhood, which may pose risks in later life such as academic underachievement and anti-social behaviour. It has been suggested that mindfulness-based interventions (MBI) may contribute to positive outcomes with child and adult populations. In this article, we aim to systematically review the literature regarding the effectiveness of MBI on both children with ADHD and their parents.
Seven databases were searched using the PRISMA criteria and included peer-reviewed journals and grey literature.
Ten studies met the inclusion criteria. Findings suggested that MBI had positive results in addressing attention deficits in children with ADHD, but in terms of hyperactivity, the evidence was conflicting. MBI interventions also appear to effectively address parental stress and family functioning. However, the rating from the quality assessment showed several methodological limitations.
The current evidence on the impact of MBI on ADHD symptoms is non-conclusive. However, promising data indicated the potential for MBI in addressing parental stress and family functioning. Further research is recommended to overcome the current methodological limitations.
Self-concept distortion has been extensively linked with decreasing mental health in gay and lesbian youth. Social context has been proposed to have a moderating effect on the development of a healthy self-concept. However, no good quality review has approached these concepts with regards to LGBT youth.
A systematic review was conducted on the relationship between social context and self-concept in gay and lesbian youth. Twenty studies were included in the review.
Quality assessment of papers yielded moderate methodological strength. Findings implied that social context has considerable influence on self-concept development. Discrepancies in assessment methods, areas of social context examined, and one-dimensional nature of examining self-concept interferes with drawing explicit conclusions regarding the relationship between social context and self-concept.
Positivity of social context is not conclusively relatable to positive self-concept development, and similarly, a negative context is not predetermining of self-concept distortions. Building on resilience factors of gay and lesbian youth, working together with families, and advancing and utilizing available educational and community resources should mitigate the strength of overt and covert heterosexism hindering healthy self-concept development. Further longitudinal and cross-cultural research will be necessary to provide insight into the mechanisms of associations.